Lipids notes - Animal Sciences 321 Lipids Dr Juan Loor Assistant Professor Department of Animal Sciences [email protected] 244-5957 Outline

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1 Lipids Animal Sciences 321 Dr. Juan Loor Assistant Professor Department of Animal Sciences [email protected]; 244-5957 Outline ¾ Introduction ¾ Lipid classes and fatty acid structures ¾ Dietary sources of lipids (dairy cattle, companion animals) ¾ Requirements in dairy and companion animals ¾ Lipid digestion, absorption, metabolism Expected outcome • By the end of this series of lectures you should know about the classes, structures, and properties of lipids; fat digestion and absorption; and fat metabolism.
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2 Grading A = 90% or above B = 80 – 89% C = 70 – 79% D = 60 – 69% F = 59% or below Lipids ± Source of concentrated energy ± Higher than carbohydrates or protein ± Source essential fatty acids ± Can’t be synthesized by the body ± Required for fat-soluble vitamin absorption Lipid Nutrition ± The series of processes by which an animal takes in and assimilates the lipid component for promoting maintenance, growth, reproduction, milk, work, and/or production. ± Lipid utilization: ± Ingestion ± Digestion: NOT same in ruminants vs. monogastric ± Absorption ± Metabolism: milk fat synthesis, fattening
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3 Lipids ± Feed application ¾ Increase caloric density of diet ¾ Control dust ¾ Bind small particles Biological Functions ¾ Reproduction ¾ Fetal Development ¾ Colostrum Production ¾ Milk production ¾ Wool ¾ Egg ¾ Racing Lipid analysis in feedstuffs • The ether extract ( EE ) used in proximate analysis consists of: – glycerides of fatty acids – free fatty acids – cholesterol – lecithin – chlorophyll – alkali substances – volatile oils –res ins • From 2% of alfalfa hay to 20% of soybean seed dry
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4 Major classes of lipids -Simple lipids : fatty acids, glycerides, waxes, (fats, oils) -Compound lipids : esters of fatty acids containing non-lipid substances (phospholipids, lipoproteins, glycolipids) -Derived lipids : substances derived from hydrolysis of simple and compound lipids (fatty acids, glycerol, other alcohols) -Sterols : lipids with complex phenanthrene-type ring structures (cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, bile acids, etc) Major classes of lipids Simple lipid : triglyceride - Milk fat, adipose tissue, oilseeds, oils, animal fat Major classes of lipids Compound lipid : Phosphatidyl choline (lecithin) - Phospholipid in egg yolk, soybeans
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5 Major classes of lipids Sterols : cholesterol -Cell membranes in body tissues Structure of fatty acids -Long chain organic acids -Usually components of triglycerides ( also referred to as triacylglycerols) -Also are found in phospholipids Various types of fats and oils are determined by the fatty acid profile Structure of fatty acids - Straight chain hydrocarbons possessing: a carboxyl (COOH ) group at one end ( α ) and (usually) a methyl group at the other ( ω ) end Fatty acid nomenclature: 1. Chain length 2. Number of unsaturated double bonds
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6 Structure of fatty acids Saturated fatty acids are: Butyric (4:0): 4 carbons no double bonds Lauric (12:0) Myristic (14:0)
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course ANSC 321 taught by Professor Juanloor during the Fall '07 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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Lipids notes - Animal Sciences 321 Lipids Dr Juan Loor Assistant Professor Department of Animal Sciences [email protected] 244-5957 Outline

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