energy notes - Outline Terminology Animal Sciences 321...

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1 Animal Sciences 321 Energy Outline • Terminology • Bioenergetics • Partitioning • Basal metabolic rate • Calorimetry • Animal feeding systems Energy and Nutrition: Bioenergetics Energetics: the study of energy requirements and the flow of energy within systems Bioenergetics: the study of the balance between energy intake in the form of food and energy utilization by animals for life-sustaining processes Processes?: tissue synthesis, digestion, respiration, reproduction, locomotion, lactation, etc. Energy and Nutrition: Bioenergetics Animals: require organic substrates as sources of carbon for growth/development Energy obtained from the breakdown of organic molecules from feed: carbohydrate, lipid, protein Glucose Î CHO, protein, lipid Energy and Nutrition: Bioenergetics Energy contained in compounds in feeds and foods = chemical energy *Released during metabolism : OXIDATION - Glycolysis - Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) - Oxidative phosphorylation Energy and Nutrition: Bioenergetics Major CHO storage form of energy Glycogen Molecule
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2 Energy and Nutrition: Bioenergetics Another major storage form of energy Glycolysis: the most universal process known - A series of biochemical reactions: Glucose Î Pyruvate - Glycolysis from greek glyk (sweet) and lysis (dissolving) - Initial process of carbohydrate metabolism in many cell types and organisms: - Two main functions : - Generate high-energy molecules (ATP and NADH) - Production of a variety of carbon intermediate metabolites: - These may be removed at various steps to use as substrates for other pathways Citric acid cycle: a.k.a. TCA or Krebs cycle - A series of biochemical reactions: Pyruvate Î intermediates, NADH, FADH 2 - Citric acid cycle is part of a metabolic pathway : - Main function: - Involved in the conversion of CHO, lipid, and protein into CO 2 and H 2 O to generate usable energy - Is the second of three metabolic pathways involved in FUEL MOLECULE (lipid, CHO, protein) utilization and ATP production : - This cycle provides precursors for many compounds such as amino acids Oxidative phosphorylation - Is the terminal process of cellular respiration - Main function: - Transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH 2 created in glycolysis, lipid metabolism, and TCA cycle to molecular O 2 - Process takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane - Each molecule of NADH = 2.5 ATP - Each molecule of FADH 2 = 1.5 ATP Summary of energy-generating events Food (lipid, CHO, protein) Digestion/absorption Storage (glycogen, triglyceride) Utilization for energy when needed Glycolysis Î Pyruvate FA oxidation TCA cycle Î NADH, FADH 2 Î ATP NADH (energy) WORK Energy and Nutrition ATP is required for: - Protein synthesis: Building cellular proteins from AAs - Lipid synthesis: Building simple and complex lipids - Glycogen synthesis (glucose storage form) Building polysaccharide, mainly in liver and muscle - Ion pumping: Moving ions across plasma membrane of cells
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3 Energy and Nutrition - Energy is not a nutrient
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course ANSC 321 taught by Professor Juanloor during the Fall '07 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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energy notes - Outline Terminology Animal Sciences 321...

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