Bio 111 test1 - BIOL 111 REVIEW FOR EXAM I NOTE THIS LIST...

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BIOL 111 REVIEW FOR EXAM I NOTE: THIS LIST IS NOT ALL INCLUSIVE. You are responsible for ALL material that was covered in class even if it is not on this list. REVIEW: ATOMS AND PROPERTIES OF WATER Know definitions and significance of elements, atoms, isotopes, protons, neutrons, electrons, orbitals, energy levels, octet rule, atomic number, atomic mass. Elements: Smallest functual unit of matter, and cannot be broken down into any other substance by natural chemical means - Human body composed significantly by 11 elements -Behavior is determined by its atomic structure Atoms : Composed of subatomic particles -Chemical characteristics determined by # of protons & # of electrons Isotopes: Atoms with different amounts of neutrons - Some elements are unstable because of isotopes (radio active) - Nucleus tends to break up in unstable isotopes, creating smaller chemicals Protons: +charge, atomic number Neutrons: 0 charge, atomic mass, can be different in any atom Electrons: - charge, atomic number - Arrangement of electrons is key to chemical behavior - have potential energy, move closer energy is released, farther away energy is gained - Different amounts of potential energy (energy levels, energy shells) - Orbit nucleus in orbitals, can be multiple orbitals within 1 shell - Orbitals are areas where electrons are most likely to be found Energy Levels: Area in which the electron orbits the nucleus Octet rule: 2 electrons in first, 8 electrons in 2 nd and so on Atomic Number: Number of protons or number of electrons Atomic Mass: Number of protons + number of neutrons Know the atomic numbers of the important biological elements- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. Atomic Numbers: Carbon 6, Hydrogen 1, Oxygen 8, nitrogen 7 Describe the different types of chemical bonds and how they are formed. Ionic: - attachment between Ions of opposite charges (ex Na+2 and Cl-2) -Converted to ion by gain or loss of an electron -gain of an electron, negative charge (anion) -loss of an electron, positive charge (Caiton) Covalent: -Two atoms sharing electrons -Outer energy shell of both atoms will be full -Very stable bond -non polar (equal sharing of electrons) -Polar (unequal sharing of electrons Hydrogen: - Weak only 10% as strong as covalent
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-Formed between hydrogen and an electronegative atom -Holds DNA together -molecules and atoms have different shapes Vander Waals Forces: -Very weak interactions -Can be strong when in numbers -Random Describe the relationship between electronegativity and polar and non-polar interactions. Electronegativity: is an electron spending more time around one atom then the other, so this only occurs in polar atoms Polarity Chart: Oxygen > Nitrogen > Hydrogen > Carbon Know the definitions of mole and molarity and how to make a solution of a given molarity. Mole: The amount of molecular weight in a substance -1 mole is different between elements -1 mole = to 6.022x10^23 particles Not the same weight Molarity: Is the # of moles of solute per 1 liter of solution Describe (not just list) the unique properties of water and why water possesses these properties.
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