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NR601_FinalExamStudyGuide.docx - NR 601 Week 8 Exam Study...

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NR 601 Week 8 Exam Study GuideWeekTopics5Glucose Metabolism DisordersTypes of diabetes (prediabetes, type 1 and type 2)Prediabetes:Impaired fasting glucoseis a prediabetic state where a person’s fastingglucose is consistently elevated above the normal range, but below the level of 100 and125 mg/dL for a formal diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Focus on weight loss and behaviorchanges. Known as glucose intolerance.Type 1 Diabetes:Diabetes mellitus type 1is a metabolic disorder characterized by severeinsulin deficiency resulting from beta cell destruction, which produces hyperglycemia dueto the altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteinsType 2 Diabetes: Type 2 DM is characterized by the abnormal secretion of insulin,resistance to the action of insulin in the target tissues, and/or an inadequate response atthe level of the insulin receptorRisk factors: Most common ethnicityFamily history (first-degree relative)Body mass index >25 kg/m2(lower for Asian Americans)Age >45 yearsImpaired fasting glucose or A1C >5.7%History of gestational diabetesHypertension (> 140/90 mm Hg or on antihypertensive therapy)Hyperlipidemia (high-density lipoprotein <35 mg/dL, triglycerides >250 mg/dL)Women with polycystic ovarian syndromeRace/EthnicityAfrican AmericanLatinoNative AmericanAsian AmericanPacific IslanderDiagnostic criteriaThere are four laboratory-based criteria to confirm DM:1.Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) level greater than or equal to 6.5%*2.Random plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dL in the presence of classicsymptoms of hyperglycemia or a hyperglycemic crisis*3.Fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher on two occasions;fastingis definedas no caloric intake for at least 8 hours4.Two-hour post-load plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher during an OGTT,following consumption of a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75 g ofanhydrous glucose dissolved in water (OGTT is also used to screen for diabetes duringpregnancy)
The criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes is either two fasting blood glucose readings with resultsgreater than or equal to 126 mg/dL or a random blood glucose reading greater than or equal to200 mg/dL if symptoms of diabetes are present.In older adults, the glucose reading after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) rises morerapidly than the fasting glucose. Therefore, diabetes will be diagnosed sooner with the OGTT thanwith fasting glucose alone. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) measurement greater than or equal to 6.5 isindicative of type 2 diabetes.In the absence of unequivocal disease, the same test should be repeated atleast onceWhen hyperglycemia has been established, fasting urine for ketones should be performed to helpdifferentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the need for insulin therapy.

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Term
Fall
Professor
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Tags
Diabetes, Blood sugar, Glucose tolerance test

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