4_geog2013_thermodynamicsW2016

4_geog2013_thermodynamicsW2016 - GEOG2013 Weather and Water...

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2016-­‐01-­‐15 1 GEOG2013 Weather and Water Lecture 4. Behaviour of the Atmosphere/ thermodynamics Weather analysis/forecast discussion Behaviour of the atmosphere Readings: Ross (2013) Ch. 3 Nov 2015 (Humphreys) 1 2 Equation of State for dry air PV = nRT à P = ρ R d T where ρ is density (kg m -3 ), T is temperature (K), and R d is the gas constant for dry air = 287.1 J K -1 kg -1 In-class activity: How does the density of dry and moist air (ie. air with a greater % of water vapour) compare? Would R d remain the same for moist air? 3 Virtual temperature T v = T (1 + 0.61 r) where T v and T are in K, r is mixing ratio of water vapour (g water vapour/ g dry air) P = ρ R d T v Air is compressible Warm air is less dense than cold air à Distinct from the behaviour of liquids
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2016-­‐01-­‐15 2 4 Hydrostatic Equilibrium Δ P/ Δ z = - ρ g where Δ P is the pressure gradient, Δ z is the slice thickness, ρ is density and g is gravitational acceleration Stull (2015) Fluid is stationary when vertical pressure gradient force = gravity
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