L2_Fundamentals___Energy_08 - Nutrition Fundamentals...

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Unformatted text preview: Nutrition Fundamentals Nutrients, Energy & Red Blood Cells (RBC) Nutrients, Energy & Red RBC Nutrients & bioactive food components Macronutrients, micronutrients and energy production Red blood cells, hemoglobin and oxygen transport What is a nutrient? chemical needed for life sufficient quantities can not be made by body Nutrients Essential conditionally essential Inadequate intake Deficiency Excess intake of some - Toxicity Macronutrients Carbohydrate Macronutrients Proteins & amino acids Macronutrients Lipids & Essential Fatty Acids Macronutrients Carbohydrates Protein and amino acids Lipids & fatty acids ENERGY Micronutrients Vitamins Fat soluble: A, D, E, K Water soluble: B-vitamins (8), vitamin C Micronutrients Minerals 17 major: Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cl, S trace elements: Fe, I, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Se, Mo, Fl Nutrients Macronutrients Micronutrients Water What else? Dietary fiber carbohydrate Bioactive food components non-essential molecules with physiological effects carotenoids other than -carotene lutein isoflavenoids resveratrol non-digestible Energy Basics Electron Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle Transport Chain ENERGY (ATP) Energy Production from Glucose Glucose Electron Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle Transport Chain ENERGY (ATP) Micronutrients and Energy Production from Glucose Glucose Niacin Magnesium (Mg) Pyruvate Niacin Riboflavin Pantothenic Niacin Pantothenic acid acid Thiamin Riboflavin Citric Acid Acetyl CoA Niacin Electron Transport Chain Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu) Mg Cycle Riboflavin ENERGY (ATP) Micronutrients in Metabolism Without coenzyme or cofactor A B C With Coenzyme or Cofactor Micronutrients and Energy Production from Fatty Acids Fatty Acids Pantothenic acid Niacin Riboflavin Acetyl CoA Niacin Niacin Riboflavin Pantothenic acid Citric Acid Cycle Riboflavin Fe Cu Mg Electron Transport Chain ENERGY (ATP) Micronutrients and Energy Production from Amino Acids Amino Acids Vitamin B-6 Pyruvate Pantothenic Niacin Pantothenic acid acid Thiamin Riboflavin Citric Acid Acetyl CoA Niacin Riboflavin Cycle Niacin Vitamin B-6 Riboflavin Vitamin B-6 Fe Cu Mg Electron Transport Chain Amino Acids Amino Acids ENERGY (ATP) Think Will taking B-vitamin supplements give you more energy? Consequences of B-vitamin, Iron or Copper Deficiency Decreased energy production from carbohydrate, fat or protein Decreased use of energy for muscles, synthesis of new compounds, growth or other work in body FATIGUE Why consider RBC now? Glucose CO2 Citric Acid Cycle O2 Electron Transport Chain Pyruvate Acetyl CoA ENERGY (ATP) Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Lungs In circulation, RBC release O2 to cells and take up CO2 from cells In air sacs of lungs, RBC release CO2 and take up O2 Cells Tissue Lung Capillary Lung Hemoglobin Fe Hemoglobin Fe Key Nutrients for RBC & Hemoglobin Synthesis Minerals Iron Copper Vitamins Folate Vitamin B-12 Iron Deficiency Normal RBC. Both size and color are normal. Microcytic Anemia Smaller RBC that are pale and contain less hemoglobin. Copper Deficiency Induces Iron Deficiency Normal RBC. Both size and color are normal. Microcytic Anemia Smaller RBC that are pale and contain less hemoglobin. Iron Recycling Store excess bound to ferritin Iron in food Iron absorbed in intesting Package iron in transferrin Liver & spleen save iron from RBC Circulating RBC (Hb) Some loss with blood loss Transport iron bound to transferrin Some loss in sweat, skin & urine Bone marrow uses iron to make hemoglobin Think Why are reproductive age women more at risk for iron-deficient anemia? Normal RBC + folate Macrocytic Anemia Megaloblastic RBC - folate Normal RBC + Vitamin B-12 Macrocytic Anemia Megaloblastic RBC - Vitamin B-12 Consequences of Anemia Decreased oxygen delivery to tissues Decreased energy production FATIGUE ...
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