Bio notes 4 - Zhaonan Liu Bio 101 Lecture 4 MACROMOLECULES...

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Zhaonan Liu August 31, 2007 Bio 101 Lecture 4 MACROMOLECULES - Energy molecules (read lecture online, too many structures) partial negative charge on the oxygen and a partial positive charge on the hydrogens. Oxygen (O) is more electronegative than hydrogen (H). Shared electrons are pulled toward oxygen. Bonds are polar covalent: covalent, but with 2 atoms that differ in electronegativity Hydrogen Bonds: weak bonds, strong effects Carbon can be asymmetrical (chiral) Tetravalence allows the possibility of asymmetrical handedness if three or four different types of atoms are bonded to carbon OPTICAL ISOMERS (Enantiomers) If 3 or 4 different atoms are bonded to carbon, their spatial arrangement defines different compounds called optical isomers (mirror images) Formula and Functional groups are identical BUT 3-D geometry around carbon atoms is different Chemical properties differ Polymerization generates macromolecules Polymers form by: Condensation reactions (join monomer to polymer) Dehydration reaction (loss of water). New covalent bonds.
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