Bio notes 5 - Zhaonan Liu Bio 101 Macromolecules September...

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Zhaonan Liu September 5, 2007 Bio 101 Lecture 5 Macromolecules Steroids lipophilic (hydrophobic) compounds with 4 rings found in plants and animals 1. important components of membranes – regulate fluidity 2. used as hormones Study structures- Plant sterols, Sex hormones, Insect sterols, Illegal sterols Informational molecules- proteins and nucleic acids Amino Acid it’s asymmetrical, almost all biologically active aa are L 20 aa form the proteins in living organisms Amino acid functional groups confer chemical properties Functional groups CH3 (methyl) non-polar, hydrophobic OH (hydroxyl) polar SH (sulfhydryl) polar NH3 (amino) positively charged COOH (carboxyl) negatively charged Nonpolar amino acids (9/20) Alanine: most abundant amino acid, Nonpolar series: valine, Leucine, Isoleucine POLAR AMINO ACIDS (6/20) Charged amino acids Amino acids polymerize into proteins by condensation reactions Dehydration reaction links amino acid to peptide polymer forms peptide bond Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary structure:
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