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Chapter 9 Bio

Chapter 9 Bio - Citric acid cycle oxidizes a derivative of...

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Bioenergetics I Fermentation- partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen. Cellular respiration- oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel. Oxidation- loss of electrons from one substance Reduction- addition of electrons to another substance Reducing agent- electron donor Oxidizing agent- electron acceptor Electron loses P.E when it shifts from a less electronegative atom towards a more electronegative one. NAD+ - derivative of the vitamin niacin. Oxidizing agent. Most versatile electron acceptor in cellular respiration. Electron transfer from NADH to oxygen is an exergonic reaction with Delta G = -53 kcal/mol Glycolysis, occurs in cytosol and breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvates.
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Unformatted text preview: Citric acid cycle- oxidizes a derivative of pyruvate to CO2 Oxidative phosphorylation- powered by redox reactions of electron transport chain Substrate-level phosphorylation- enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a susbtrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation 1 Glucose- about 38 molecules of ATP, each with 7.3 kcal/mol of free energy Glycolysis- net 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate, 2 H2O, 2 H+ Fermentation transfers electrons from NADH to pyruvate, restocking NAD+ Alcohol fermentation= pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps...
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