Notes 01-20-2011 - [LE/J 551 1’ 20 40¢ a Simple LTE...

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Unformatted text preview: [LE/J 551 1’ 20 40¢! a Simple LTE summary: Part of the LTE standard is an IP based network architecture designed to replace the GPRS core network and ensure support for, and mobility between, some legacy or non-3GPP systems, such as WiMAX. (l6 )Zfa, 3 5:) The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of at least 100 Mbps, an uplink of at least 50 Mbps and latency times less than lOms. LTE sugport’s 5M /, 4/////z scalable frequency bandwidths from 1.25 MHZ to 20 MHz : 1.2531573, 1o,’i5, and 20MHz; and supports both (F DD) and (TDD). 4(7 LTE; -— ADV/N C ED First-release LTE does not fully comply with the 4G requirements. LTE Advanced is certified 4G and is backwards compatible with LTE and uses the same frequency bands, while LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G systems. 7 MetroPCS, Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility in the United States and several worldwide carriers announced plans, beginning in 2009, to convert their networks to LTE. (see previous lecture notes for more complete and more modern details) 3G to 3.9G evolution: CDMAZOOO (1 .25MHz channels) DL: 153wa DL: 2.4Mbps DL: 3.1 Mbps DL: 3.1 - 73Mbps DL: 70 . 200Mbps UL: 1 53Kbps UL: 153wa UL: 1.8Mbps UL: 1.8 - 27Mbps UL: 30 - “Mbps WCDMA/ UMTS (5MHz channels) DL: 384Kbps DL: 1.8 — 7.2Mbps DL: 7.2Mbps DL: “Mbps DL: 100Mbps UL: :84wa UL: 384Kbps UL: 5.8Mbps UL: 1 (Mbps UL; 50Mbps Better Spectral Efl. More users per cell WIMAX (1.25 to 20 MHz channels) 802.163 802.16 - 2004 802.161; 802.16m DL: 72Mbps DL: 1Gbps UL: 15Mbps UL:? 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 l2012 ELEM 55? OFDMA in the downlink and SC-FDMA in the uplink Uplink modulation schemes: QPSK, 1SQAM, 64QAM Broadcast channel only uses QPSK L, )wfl LIM(( Up to ZWHZ (i.e., can support 200 data users) Quote: “The standard includes: Note Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennae, and 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennae (utilizing 20 MHZ of spectrurn).[m1 : If we knew what G.I. used, then could figure if that’s 4X4;4 or not. Peak upload rates of 86.4 Mbit/s for every 20 MHZ of spectrum using a single antennaw Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth. At least 200 active users in every 5 MHZ cell. (Specifically, 200 active data clients) Sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets Increased spectrum flexibility, with supported spectrum slices as small as 1.4 MHZ and as large as 20 MHZ (W-CDMA requires 5 MHZ slices, leading to some problems with roll- outs 01°the technology s ectrum, and is frequently already in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.) Limiting sizes to 5 MHZ also limited the amount of bandwidth per handset In the 900 MHZ frequency band to be used in rural areas, supporting an optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km celmupported with acceptable performance. In city and urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHZ in EU) are used to support high speed mobile broadband. In this case, cell sizes erm or even less; Good SW mobility. High performance mobile data is possible at speeds of up to 350 km/h, or even up to 500 km/h, depending on the frequency band used.LL11 End of quote. ELEM 56? .9 Zo' w” @ , spedfl/lb A76 - W WW mm $9M) C6 6176; L; #wueméfi *5 ’9 "5‘45 M - semen/“94* “seam”; Spectral Efficiency fsome "old stuff" : Servicefll Standard System spectral efficiency Approx. ((R/B) NO ((bit/s) /Hz per site) g cellular GS 0.17151 (in 1999) 2_.75_G cellular CDMAZOOO 1x voice 0.172 (fully loaded) ‘2._75§cellular MHjD—GE ‘ 3g cellular WCDMA FDD Fixed M IEEE 802.16d IEEE 802.11alg ELEM 56? i- 20 — 20!! @ LTE vs WiMA Other Key Parameter Comparisons Parameter LTE ‘ Mobile WiMAX Rel 1.5 Duplex FDD and TDD FDD and TDD Frequency Band For QIJIJIJ MHz 2500 MHZ Performance Analysis Channel BW Up to 20 MHZ Up to 20 MHZ Downlink OFDMA OFDMA Uplink SC-FDMA OFDMA M obility Support Target: Up to 3 5|] kmihr Up to 120 WWW HARQ Incremental Redundancy Chase Combining Link Budget Typically limited by Mobile Device Typically limited by Mobile Device Advanced Antenna DL: 2x2. 2x4. 4x2, 4x4 DL: 2x2, 2x4, 4x2, 4x4 Support UL: 1x2. 1x4, 2x2, 2x4 UL: 1x2. 1x4, 2x2. 2x4 1. Spectral efficiency is based on NGMN Alliance recommended evaluation methodology 7 Referenrre fnrl' Tl: Snedml Fffinienm' Mnfnmla win-halte- “l TF in Denfh“ ELEM 55? I— 10 ’ 2”” Verizon white paper quotes: ,u .-,,;.i.t ..,.;,.. Fit Edi View Docm Tools Window Hllp var-J's? «\an "130% do WPAN: Bluelooflh IR WW“: CDMA, GSM Figure 1: Wireless network technologies. Benefits expected from LTE technology: ++High peak speeds: x6100 Mbps downlink (20 MHz, 2x2 MlMO)—both indoors and outdoors // ; ' x650 Mbps uplink (20 MHz, 1x2) _,__ ++At least 209 active voice users in every 5 MHz (i.e., can [email protected] phone calls) ' ++Low latency: x6< 5 ms user plane latency for small IP packets (user equipment to radio access network [RAN] edge) x9< 100 ms camped to active x9< 50 ms dormant to active ++Scalable bandwidth: xeThe 4G channel offers four times more bandwidth than current 3G systems and is scalable. So, while 20 MHz channels may not be available everywhere, 4G systems will offer channel sizes down to 5 MHz, in increments of 1.5 MHz. ++|mproved spectrum efficiency: Recurrwe TO 1561 x98pectrum efficiency refers to how limited bandwidth is used by the access layer of a wireless network. Improved spectrum efficiency allows more information to be transmitted in a given bandwidth, while increasing the number of users and services the network can support. ELEM 55? i~ ZO—Zoll @ xeTwo to four times more information can be transmitted versus the previous benchmark, HSPA Release 6. ++|mproved cell edge data rates: x9Not only does spectral efficiency improve near cell towers, it also improves at the coverage area or cell edge. x9Data rates improve two to three times at the cell edge over the previous benchmark, HSPA Release 6. ++Packet domain only ++Enhanced support for end-to-end quality of service: xaReducing handover latency and packet loss is key to delivering a quality service. This reduction is considerably more challenging with mobile broadband than with fixed- line broadband. The time variability and unpredictability of the channel become more acute. Additional complications arise from the need to hand over sessions from one cell to another as users cross coverage boundaries. These handover sessions require seamless coordination of radio resources across multiple cells. llf Wllllf PAPldef 7 Adobe Reade-r ile Edit View Document Tools Vlfindow Help Hg~$gg1ll19se1so%.W—4djam - Figure 5 provides a quick glance at LTE's technical specifications and attributes. Scalable and “l Flat all-IP architecture Peak performance . . Power-efficient uplink compatiblewith . for performance and downlink | ' . . 36 networks efficiency 4- Efficiency OFDM/OFDMA in + SC-FDMA + Scalable spectrum allocation + High performance network thedownhnk - Lower Peak-to-average ratio (14‘ 3'5’10'15'20 MHZ) ' Effiiientlpl’omlng - Spectralefficiency - Greatforin-band reduceslatency _ . - Longer mobile battery life (2 5 t‘mes'Rel'S) daployment ~ Increased throughput - Resistantto multi—path ' La’EercellmeraSe + Mobility with BGPPand _ F t t t t n .tbn tim interference + collaborative(multi-usggp‘ié "0n'3GPp access (earshasnge: ariassion) e + MIMO antennas ‘" al Mlmo' ~°T z ' Smooth network migration . . . S . . .l ffifie toLTE and beyond 0 LessthanSOmstranSLtion 0 Doubles the throughput Imp' lesmo 19 from dormant to active ‘mplementatlon + Globalroamingwith other . Deployment Slmpllaty + Increases uplink capacity 3GPP networks Figure 5: A summary of LTE capabilities. ‘73 Testing and Deployment Many of the majorglobal wireless carriers have lined up to support LTE as the foundation for their 46 network deployments. These global carriers include Verizon Wireless, as well as Vodafone, China Mobile, ATlhT, China Telecom. KDDI, MetroPCS, NTT DoCoMo, and T-Mobile—all plan to deploy LTE at some point in the future. Verizon Wireless and its European partner Vodafone have been among the most aggressive carriers in terms of LTE deployment timelines. VerizonWireless has spent the past few years working with 3GPP standards in an effort to ensure interoperability between LTE and its current CDMA EV-DO Rev. A wireless broadband network. mam ‘ ' A 19Windows v @4Mitroscft0 v -'-WolfrarriMathe. M23Mi:msoft.. v “16Frefcw v 4;. ScanlrW’vndrj, <l "'5‘ 3:10 ELEIJ 55% i~zo— 20// CD SC-FDMA Single—carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) was chosen to reduce Peak to Average Batip (PAR), which has been identified as a 0W in the uplink where power-efficient amplifiers are required in mobile devices. Another important requirement was to maximize the coverage. For each time interval, the base station scheduler agggnsmnique timti-jpeggeminterval to a terminal for the transmission of user data, thereby ensuring intracell orthogonality. Slow ppwg: gpntrol, for compensating path loss and shadow fading, is sufficient as no near-far problem is present due to the orthogonal uplink transmissions. Transmission parameters, coding, and modulation are similar to the downlink transmission. The chosen SC-FDMA solution is based on using a cyclic prefix to allow high- performance and low-complexity receiver implementation in the eNodeB. As such, the receiver requirements are more complex than in the case of OFDMA for similar link performance, but this is not considered to be a problem in the base station. The terminal is only assigned with contiguous spectrum blocks in the frequency domain to maintain the single-carrier properties and thereby ensure power-efficient transmission. This approach is often referred to as blocked or localized SC-FDMA. ' 6 0543M“ , Morin mums , any mama; COPSTQOCVM :41 $7 51316141 3701 ) may 170m; 0% oesfzucmgfl 37W (Fem . (FM; farm 7 ("a l-l6_%fl WOW SC’PDM/l — $tMnLAQ To View)ij l-l—O’FPIIQQ OK‘rHoeooAL f0 EMH OTrlélZ— t ll 0 MULTIPI’rTH l? Omega—s Age 6MALLé-Iwuéwf I? OW." ‘Bé ADJACerJT (i Nex‘r'foz) «(Hero er-eez 16 WA$T€D W Wear/AL ELEM 55? " 20’ Z4” 9. A Technology Comparison between LTE and WiMAX LTE and WiMAX have many features and functions in common; more so than one might think. Both are 4G wireless technologies designed to move data rather than voice. Both are all-lP technologies that strictly separate the wireless network from the applications that run on them. In terms of how they operate, both LTE and WiMAX have more in common with Wi-Fi and the Internet than with traditional cellular networks that exist today. Rather than being rival wireless technologies, such as GSM and CDMA, WiMAX and LTE are more like siblings. l Mote $0003 l we 26ml “Willa, \ m §Q¢® gaze AME/v10 R55 File Edit View Document Tools Window Help Hg-€:§%15119‘$100%v Willi] cm . LTE* WiMAX 802.169 2005 MIMO MIMO l ’ Technology Downlink: OFDM DownlinkOFDM HOT 801 Uplink: SC-FDMA Uplink: OFDM H 4 67 Downlink: 100 Mbps . Peak speeds 20 MHz,2x2 MIMO) “mlgllg‘lamps Uplin ‘50 Mbps (20 MHz, 1x2) P ~ P Avera 9 user Swan-12 Mbpsldownlink) 2Mb s—4 Mbfildownlink) throug put 2 bps-5 Mbpslupiink) 500K p5-1.5 bps [uplinkl One-way airlink 15m 50 ms latency Bandwidth 20 MHz,15MHz,10 MHZ.5 MHz,and‘5MHz 3.5 MHZ,5MHZ,7MHZ, 8.75 MHZ. 10 MHz VerizonWirelesswill use700 MHz, but LTE _ can be de loyed in various fre uencies. Spec“ um Usingthe 7&1 MHzfrequency hellps increase 2'3'2'5’3'5’5‘BGHZ in—buildingcoverage for wireless signals.‘ Mobility Targeted mobility up to 350 kmph Targeted mobility up to 120 kmph Figure 8: Technical differences between LTE and WiMAX. 10.TheAdvantagesofLTE ’- Govt “Bel/JG. NU: To 0* AK Despite their similarities. '-."eri::ri"u'|iir-Ele-:: has :hasen t: deialo,r LTE because it cfter: a numb-Er «:fsliztinct advantages mar ‘.‘v'.l-,1AX.Hi._:her data rates and law-er latency make LTE connectians mcre respcnswe, enabllng real-time multitast app Ii: atlcnz. such as online gaming and w ids: c-anFerencmg. 'Cl'lOC'Sln" the .700 MHz Frequency as the basis at the "."erizon Wireless netv.'Cr|-: results in a longer range tram the base station, :cmpared With system: SIDE-rating atZE 13H: or 3,5’SH2. ln addition. using the .700 MHZ frEqu-Ericy allcws tsr better in-buil-dingpenetraticvn and nth-stage ,v WIFEIEEE signals. helping to Improve network :Jnditizns. LTE als: after: mcbile users better average as the; travel bi,- prcuiding seamless hand :'.-er and rzarring for true mcbilitv. LTE is better suited For glct-al adoptizn than WiMAX. AlthoughlSGl—lz, 3.5‘3H2. and 5.8 13H: bands are allotted in many regic‘ns :f the warld, many grzwth markets rEquue new allocationst: service th-C—ir pcpulatians. Sivan the diverse réquirements 3nd ragulatians 0F various gavernments, it w ill be a challenge Far WiMAX to achie-ce glcbal harmonizatlnn. m ,zllAditlbeRe.” v lyimndowa. v 4Microsoft0... v :~wcrnamMaihe... M23Nlicrosdft. v 7")16erfm: v i5can1»Windo, luzor 20” ELEM 65? 3 Hr wum UJ'HKW‘ 7 Adobe rzpaam file Edit View Document Tools Window Help fig-fijafiigmlm ‘9125%-fit;j;1 . As an industry leader. Verizon Wireless must carefully consider both the technical and business implications of adopting new technologies for network deployment. LTE will offer a number of technological advantages over WiMAX. + LTE features higher peak rates and shorten/lower latency to support real-time applications. such as video conferencing and mobile gaming. WiMAX suffers from coverage challenges (especrally indoors] due to high frequency bands. LTE provides better global coverage and roaming capabilities, while maintaining compatibility with existingZG and 3G wireless networks Numerous vendorsworldwide have publicly announced the development of user equipment based on the LTE standard; having a plentiful supply of equipment and devices will help drive down the costs of using the technology. LTE enjoys strong. widespread support from the mobile industry. both from wireless carriers and vendors alike. Multiple vendors. operators. and research institutes are participatingin standardizing1 LTE. This provides agood base for creating a healthy technological ecosystem. The Verizon Wireless IMS/AIMS core network is access-technology agnostic and supports LTE. LTE WiMAX802.16e Global roaming Limited international roaming Interoperability Backwards compatibility Connectsto legacy BGF’P networks None; new build out Exam lesinclude:Verizon Wireless. odafone, ATlhT, T—Mobile. Nokia, Qualcomm, Alcatei-Lucent, Ericsson, MetroPCs, KDDI, China Mobile, DoCoMo Examaales include: Sprint»NexteL learwire, Intel, Google Market momentum Figure 9: Business considerations for using WiMAX or LTE. M m m _ . 17 Litre L‘e v I 19 ‘Mndows V @4 Microsoft 0. V 5» Wolfram Mathe . m 23 Microsoft. ' ‘1 l6 Firefo‘ V End of Verizon white paper quote. 302.16m 3idvanced Air Interface with data rates of 100 Mbit/s mobile & 1 Gbit/s fixed. \lso known as Mobile WiMAX Release 2 or WirelessMAN-Advanced. \iming at fulfilling the ITU—R IMT-Advanced requirements on is systems. \nd often see things like: ‘V”"IIAX Ready for Market Adoption Now and 9 million Mobile WiMAX Chipsets will 5h"; in 2009” =33 Scanl - Windo . < - 7i? :71 I‘ 3:30 Fl. ELEM 55? Iv 20' 20” And where was 802.11n in all ofthat... and for 46 it’s Advanced LTE vs 802.16m : _———-—‘ — A _ , _ Downlink Uplink ' 1 Standard {E Family In anary Use in Radio Tech M] "‘th " ("bit/s) “ Notes H OFDMA/MIMO 100 (in 20MHz 50 (in 20 MHz LTE-Advanced update expected to offer peak rates up to 1 Gbitls fixed LTE UMTSMGSM Genera' ‘6 .Isc-FDMA bandwidth) bandwidth) speeds and 100 Mb/s to mobile users . 128 (in 20MHZ 56 (in 20MHz WiMAX update IEEE 802 16m expected to alter peak rates ofat least 1 MAX .1 M OSOFDMA m 802 6 Mme mm“ [M bandwidth) bandwidth) 6sz fixed speeds and 100Mbit/s to mobile users. Mobile Internet 5.3 1.8 _ , FIashOFDM FIash-OFDM mobility upto FIash-OFDM 1076 3.6 1fz'zlffgim) 200mph (350kmlh) 1579 5.4 9 HIPERMAN HlPERMAN Mobile lntemet OFDM 569 56,9 Antenna, RF front end enhancements and minor protocol timer tweaks _ 80211 , t have helped deploy long range P2P networks compromising on radial Wi'F' (11n) Mame Internet OFDM/MIMO 288‘s coverage througiput and/or spectra efficiency (310km d? 8. 382k? a) (‘can support 600 when set at 40MHz channel width} Cell Radius: 3—12 km . . Speed: 250kmph lBurst 80220 Mobile lntemet HC-SDMNI'DDAVHMO 95 36 spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/Snulce“ Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1" EDGE Evolution GSM Mobile lntemet TDMNFDD 02 0.2 3GPP Release 7 UMTS W-CDMA CDMNFDD 07384 0.384 . . . . HSDPA¢H SUPA UMTSI3GSM General 36 14.4 5.76 PA W'iélzggiiysd' Tl’fpfa' 'iwg'm‘b?“ may 2 MWS‘ ‘200 HSPA+ CDMA/FDD/MIMO 56 22 s "9"" ‘ °"'" '” “P ° ' 5' , W 1“ . l UMTSJDD UMTSIBGSM Mobile lntemet CDMNTDD 1s 16 R,er Speeds “w'd'ng m [P W 955 '33 “5mg 160A“ mu'm” Slmllal’ to HSDPA+HSUPA _ Succeeded by EV-DO for data use. but still is used for voice and as a 1 1T CDMAZOOO M CDMA 0. 44 0.144 "R “"9 “hm 1 failover for EV-DO EV-DO 1x Rev. 0 2,45 015 Rev B note. N is the number of 125 MHz chunks ofspectrum usede FJLDO 11.9»! Aefflmflflfl ,Mnhilp lntampt FNMA/FUD ’i 1 1 R Fv.nn is. nnt daqinnprl fm 1min: and mmlim: a fallhzrk tn 121217 Mon ...
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