Bio Final 04 - {of Biology 131 Final Examination May 6,...

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Unformatted text preview: {of Biology 131 Final Examination May 6, 2004 This examination is in two parts. First is a multiple-choice part, and your answers will be put on the attached Scantron sheet. Be sure to put your name and student number on the sheet. The second part of the exam consists of quantitative problems and 311011 essays to be answered in the space provided. Be sure to put your name and student number on all of those pages. When you are finished, turn in the Scantron sheet and pages with the written answers; you should keep the multiple-choice questions. I = DAC/‘AX; J = PAC ,for a monovalent cation, X. V—25 V1 Xo—SS VI X x— m nX— m ogX ! i For a diavaient ion, the above equations must be divided by 2 (F2), thus VCa = 29 mV log (Cao/Caj). For a monoValent anion such as Cl', 2 = -1, so Va = -58 mV log (Clo/Ch). ' Vm = V; — Va F = 105 coulombsr’mole, (RTIF) = 25 mV larva—1P2 ‘P=P"H ALP=(P;—P,)—(n,—n,) Joules 2 C where Cj refers to the Concentration of thej J. _ = 3 n — RT: C: 2'4 '10 mole different solutes in the solution. L 2 J61)“ .1413,»’ ./2D; in 3, 2 and 1 dimensions, respectively. Thus, t increases with L2 (e.g., in 1 dimension, t = L2t2D). Constants, Algebraic Relationships, and Conversion Factors log 10 = 1; log 2 a: 0.3; log 3 m 0.5; log 5 z 0.7; log 100 = 2; log 1000=3, etc. log (ME) = -log(Bt’A) = log A — log B log (AOB) = log A + log B; thus log 50 = log 10 + log 5 =1+ 0.? =1.7 Avogadro number = 6x10” 1pm =10'3 mm =104 cm 1L=103mL =103 cm3 =10“3 m3 As prefixes to units, m = 10'3, u = 106, n = 109, K = 103 Speed of light in vacuum, c = 3 x 108 m/s; energy of a quantum, E = hem, h = 6.6 10'34jou1e/s thcme (GI ) Alanine (Ala) Valine (Val) V Leucine (Leu) L... lsoleuclne (He) 1'. The pressure generated by the meniscus of water: P = —2Tl’rc, where T is the surface tension of water (7 x 10'3 MPaom=70 x 10’3 me) and r‘: is the radius of curvature of the meniscus. 1 Pa = Ijoulel’ms; 1 arm = 0.1 MPa = 760 mmHg z 10 m H20 P0; = F02(PB — 4'? tort) (for air saturated with water vapor) C0: + H20 <3 H2003 <2 H“ + HC03' Glutamlne /0 —CH,—CH —c/ Tyrosme T r CH=CH Y \CH—CH/ "m Hislidine J . NH N (HIS) \ y H CH Lysine (Lyg) _CH2 _CH2—CH2—CH,—I:IHJ K Arginl'ne (Ara) NH —CH2-—CH,—CH;—NH,—C<+ ’ NH, 3',5'-Cyelie AMP {afiMPl Cyslelne *5“ __SH {cits} I (2‘. Math on'n (Mel; I e _CH*“CH=—5-CH, Aspanlc 39ch yo _ D O Glularnlc aCld i0 (Gm) *CHa-"CH3_C\O__ E Asparagine #0 man} —CH2"'C\ N NH; 0 N?” l ‘. .5 {N lxl’/l\Nl-l2 0-‘CH2 0 ,+ I J. ‘05? -—-—0 OH I O 3',5'-C\rl:iie GMP chMN Phenylalanine (Phe) /CH=CH\ _ H #C CH F c ’ “‘eca—CH’ / . 0=C 5 Praline \(ij—CHaxc E H . (Pm) N—i—CHz/ I P I = CH / \\ Tryplophar! _CH:"'fi_(l-1" (13H {Trpl {fl/[K 49H W NH CH Senne __CH2_0H (Ser) 5 Threonine ___CH/CH’ (Tm) “ou' .r" Part1 Answer the following 42 questions on the Scantron sheet. All questions are worth 2.5 points, for a total of 105 points. Note that the questions are not of equal difficulty, so budget your time so that you get the easy ones. There is only one correct answer per question: in some cases you may have to choose the best answer. 1. Fertilization in higher plants involves a. b. / the penetration of the pollen tube into the egg, with the release of the sperm cell the release of two sperm cells into the egg to form a triploid zygote the differentiation of the pollen vegetative nucleus into a sperm nucleus followed by the fertilization of the egg the movement of a motile sperm down the style to the egg the release of two sperm cells into a synergid and the subsequent fertilization of the egg and the central cell 2. The point in meiosis of the oocyte at which fertilization occurs in sea urchins is a. b. c. a @ e. germinal vesicle stage (first meiotic prophase) first meiotic metaphase second meiotic metaphase pronuclear stage (meiosis complete) any of the above stages, depending on the individual sea urchin 3. Suppose that at a particular time the cytoplasm of a cell consists of 100 mM K: 100 mM of organic anions, and 100 mM glucose. The bathing medium contains only 175 mM NaCl. Assuming that there is initially no hydrostatic pressure d'fference, which way will water flow? - a. -' c d. e. into the cell out of the cell into the cell only if there is a negative membrane potential out of the cell only if there is a negative membrane potential depends on the equilibrium potential for potassium. 4. Some cells have high concentrations of the amino acid, proline, in the cytoplasm. Proline is uncharged at physiological pH. If the permeability of a cell’s membrane to proline is 10'8 cml's and the concentration of proline inside the cells is 11 mM and outside is 1 mM, what is the flux of proline into or out of the cell? // a. // © " C d. e. 10'“1 mole cm'2 s" 10'13 mole cm‘2 s'1 J. P6 C- __ _ l0" ELI :- Iohifi 10'12 mole cm"2 s'1 A c: ('1' 0%“ " low“ _ . L- “ CV":I 10'11 mole cm‘2 s" l l3 " -10 -2 -1 —_ “‘5 "I W“ (0‘- .CELL 10 mole cm 5 J ‘ l0 is? ’0 Cw? \__ ..c“v~"-.S 5. The slow, permanent block to polyspermy in sea urchins is .P The, increase in Ca2+ that accompanies fertilization 1 the elevated and hardened fertilization envelope 0. the acrosome process (1. the entry of the first sperm into the egg e. the depolarization of the membrane potential to + 20 mV 6. The molecule phosphatidyl choline a. is a glycerol backbone with choline attached to all three carbons of the glycerol b. consists of a glycerol backbone with a fatty acid esterified to one glycerol carbon, the choline esterified to one glycerol carbon and a phosphate group esterified to the third carbon c. is a neurotransmitter related to acetylcholine, but used only in the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system d. is a component of alpha helical proteins ; consists of a glycerol backbone with a fatty‘ acid esterified to each of two of the glycerol carbons and choline connected to the third glycerol carbon via a phosphate ester 7. Fick’s first law and Ohm's law are examples of the more general rule that states a. That energy is conserved in all reactions , b- molecules always move down their concentration gradients c. Ions and neutral molecules diffuse by different pathways and have different equilibrium conditions. d. That the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to viscosity and directly proportional to molecular volume. V... " The flux of a material is equal to a driving force times a constant that contains information about the material and the medium through which it is moving. 8. The active form of phytochrome 3. depends on the phytochrome molecule binding Ca2+ b. is produced when the phytochrome molecule absorbs light at 730 run 0. causes the turning of coleoptiles toward a light source is produced when the phytochrome molecule absorbs light at 670 nm e. is produced when the phytochrome molecule absorbs light at 450 run 9. It takes 2 s for a particular protein to diffuse the first 120 pm down the axon of a motor neuron. How long would it take for the protein to diffuse the total 120 mm length of the axon? Hint: there is no need to square 120 or to decide about 1,2, or 3 dimensions; use a ratio. “- 3- a. 2x10:s g _ lQOW") —__—_ [0B r . 2 10 r 2. 2:104: 1'5 20/“ ,. d. 2x105s J'. 6 / 2x10 5 10. What is the rate of propagation of an action potential down a motor neuron? In making an estimate, you might want to make use of the fact that the reaction time between seeing an obstacle and the application ofthe brakes by a driver is a few hundred Worlds. J/ I a. 0.031115 1;: V" :3“; b 0.3 mfs 0.33.: ,r 3 W5 _ q; H .5 A 30 mfs (0‘33 3 ° ) e 300 mr’s 11. The role of actin in the fertilization of the sea urchin eggs is @D to polymerize into F-actin in the sperm and cause the extension of the acrosome b. cause the depolarization of the membrane potential that establishes the fast block to ponspermy. c. to establish the slow block to polyspermy d. to cause the release of calcium ' e. to drive the cortical reaction 12. The mechanism by which gibberellin causes amylase to be secreted by the aleurone cells of the barley seed is a. by enzymatically digesting starch y” b. by opening chloride channels, thus depolarizing the membrane potential c. by activating a proton ATPase, thus hyperpolarizin g the membrane potential ,r'" by binding to a plasma membrane receptor and thus causing an increase in "I cytosolic Ca2+ ' e. by inducing the polar transport of auxin 1.6. The anterior determinant that is localized to the anterior pole of the DrOSOphila egg is bicoid mRNA b. bicoid protein c. nanos mRNA (1. hunchback mRNA e. hunchback protein J 14. When does bicoid protein do? - élt activates Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane of the egg / It is a transcription factor that regulates the production of huchback mRNA c. It is a transcription factor that regulates the production of names mRNA (1. Nothing, because the mRNA is never translated. c. It directs the formation of the pole cells. 15. The underlying basis of hydrogen bonding is a. the ability of carbon to form four covalent bonds with hydrogen b. the tendency of an amine group to pick up a proton and become positively charged V, g) the unequal sharing of electrons by the strongly electronegative atoms 0 and N when they form covalent bonds, thus creating charge separation d. the ability of an amino group to form a peptide bond with a carboxyl group with the loss of a water molecule e. the tendency of a carboxyl group to loose a proton and become negatively charged, even at pH 5 16. The fast block to polyspermy in the sea urchin egg 3. requires the cortical reaction b. depends on the elevation and hardening of the fertilization envelope c. depends on the entry of Ca2+ from the seawater ‘ (1. takes about 1 minute after fertilization to be established consists of the depolarization of the membrane potential 1?. The region of an amphibian embryo has the capacity to induce a second embryonic axis when transplanted into the ventral side of another embryo is a. the notochord i, (E) the dorsal lip ofthe blastopore , I c. the neural plate (1. the optic vesicle e. the lens 18. The cellular basis for the polar transport-of auxin a. requires the asymmetrical location of the NafK ATPase b. depends on gravity to move auxin-binding proteins downward c. relies on the relatively acidic pH of the cytoplasm, compared to the cell wall .- (1. requires the asymmetrical location of proteins that move auxin into the cells [/ requires the asymmetrical location of proteins that move auxin out of the calls 19. The duration of a typical neuronal action potential is ..a. 20 us “##— " b. 200 us © 2ms d. 20ms e 200ms 20. The role of myelin is a. protect the axon from mechanical damage /. b. provide nutrients for the developing neuron \/ © insulate the axon and thus speed the propagation of the action potential d. supply neurotransmitter substances to the axon e. prevent inapprOpriate synapses from being made on the axon 21. If two action potentials are simultaneously initiated at different places on an axon, a. they will meet and cross without disturbing each other i ® they will annihilate each other at the point where they meet J 0. they will never meet because they will both move only away from the cell body d. they will reinforce each other when they meet, doubling the amplitude of each e. they will slow the rate of propagation of each other 22. Ouabain is a plant alkaloid that inhibits the NaaKATPase. What would be the effect of applying ouabain to neuron? a. action potentials would immediately cease as sodium and potassium channels would be blocked b. action potentials would be spontaneously initiated due to the depolarization of the membrane potential _ action potentials would immediately cease as the sodium and potassium x' C. / gradients would immediately collapse @ there would be no effect on action potentials until many had been fired because the amount of cellular Na gained and K lost in each AP is small in chemical terms e. there would be no effect on action potentials until many had been fired, because the amount of cellular Na lost and K gained in each AP is small in chemical terms . 23. An action potential will be generated in a motor neuron if a. an excitatory input arrives at a dendrite b. an inhibitory input arrives at a dendrite t," (E) the spike generating region (the axon hillock) is depolarized to threshold (1. acetylcholine is released from the neuron’s terminal Fir—EH e. the postsynaptic muscle fires an action potential 24. The effect of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, on a postsynaptic cell is a .the opening of a 1i gand-gated ion channel that is permeable to both K+ and Na+ b. the opening of a Ca2+ channel c. the release of Ca2+ from internal stores . the activation of a G-protein via a seven-pass transmembrane receptor determined by the type of receptor, nicotinic or muscarinic, contained in the postsynaptic membrane 25. What one condition must be satisfied in order for water to move into a root hair cell from the soil? 3.. the osmolarity must be greater in the cell than in the soil . b. the osmolarity must be greater in the soil than in the cell " c. the hydrostatic pressure must be greater in the cell than in the soil d. the water potential must be greater in the cell than in the soil @the water potential must be greater in soil than in the cell /26. When a coleoptile responds to unilateral blue light 5 @auxin is transported away from the light and the coleoptile bends toward the lioht b. auxin is transported toward the light and the coleoptile bends toward the light 0. auxin is transported toward the light and the coleoptile bends away from the light d. auxin is transported away from the light and the coleoptile bends away from the light e. the turning is mediated by phytochrome and auxin 2?. What fundamental process leads to the production of the flowing plant’s microspore an how many function microspores are produced from a single microspore mother 1 (microsporocyte)? a. mitosis, 4 b. mitosis, 2 i @meiosis, 4 d. meiosis, 1 e. mitosis, 1 28. By what mechanism do root hairs take up N03' from the soil? a. osmosis . through ion channels Specific for N03' fl by a primary pump powered by ATP 'L- @by secondary transport with the inward movement of H+ providing the energy e by secondary transport with the inward movement of NaJr providing the energy 29. The visible (to humans) part of the electromagnetic spectrum consists of what wavelengths? ' a. 400-700 mm b. 100-1000 pm / @ 400-700 nm (1. 400-700 pm e. 100-1000 nm 30. When the P (:02 of the arterial system exceeds 40 torr, the response of the respiratory system fi—flf‘ _ a. is to decrease metabolism in order to reduce C02 production /b. is to cause inspired air to be enhanced in 02 G) is to increase the rate of breathing dT—isto--ac-idify the'bl'ood so that more C02 can be carried as HCOg' e. is to decrease the rate of breathing I, 3 .. The rate of breathing in humans is controlled principally by /1 cells that monitor the Pcoz in the blood b. cells that monitor the P02 in the blood c. cells that monitor the degree of saturation of hemoglobin d. cells that monitor the degree of stretch of the alveoli 6. cells that monitor the level of ammonia in the blood C. Opening of C 1' channels and Cl' efflux I. Membrane hyperpolarization (Vm becomes more ne ative) D. Activation of H‘-ATPase ‘ J. Secondary transport of Cl‘ into guard - cell E. Water influx into the Guard cell. K. K.‘ efflux .' /F. Activation of blue lioht rece tor 32. Above are listed a series of events that relate to guard cell operation. Which of the following sequence of events correctly describes guard cell Opening? Don't make this too hard—only one sequence makes any sense. _ .B,G,C.H,K.A fl.E,D,L,H,J A- r uD 34.What is the P02 of the moist-air inspired by a climber at the peak of Mt. Everest, where barometric pressure is 247 ton"? Assume that air is 20% 02. (Check the first two ygés for equations) a. X _ _ __ 40 torr ). ‘5 3 20 o L f b. 49 torr c. 45 torr d. 200 torr e. 160 torr '1. 1‘0 I go 35. The intracellular concentration of Na+ in an axon is 10 mM and the extracellular concentration is 100 mM. What is the maximum value of the membrane potential that an action potential can reach? a. -58 mV -- - \ b. -25 mV x c. 0 mV --_ f/ M d +25 mV {)1}... K I“ e 58 HIV a..._.__f ’ 2r 5 r {1 3, c" l / {‘7 4'1 ' \ '\- - - ' 36. What is the effect of acetylcholine on the heart? 1 a __='-'—'_'_ —-—‘_‘—‘--_F 1 F - a. it increases th’dfl‘t rate and merease the strength of contraction @it decreases the heart rate and decreases the strength of contraction c. it increases the heart rate and decreases the strength of contraction d. it decreases the heart rate and increases the strength of contraction e. it increases strength of contraction in the atria but decreases strength of contraction in the ventricles. 37. The dominant form in which C02 is carried in blood is a. as carbamino compounds b. bound to hemoglobin c. dissolved in the plasma as C02 (1. as H2CO3 -/ as HCO3' 38. The Bohr effect refers to the fact that / a. elevated pH reduces hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen, compared to lower pH. i @lowered pH reduces hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen, compared to higher pH c. carbamino compounds have reduced oxygen affinity d. carbarnino compounds have increased oxygen affinity 6. C02 is higher in the tissue capillaries than in the pulmonary capillaries 39. Color Vision depends on the existence of r / three different kinds of photoreceptor cells each containing a different form of " the protein opsin 1). three different kinds of photoreceptor cells each containing a different form of retinal . c. color-coded bipolar cells for each wavelength d. the refraction of h ght into its component wavelengths, which impinge on different parts of the retina e. the graded response of the uniform photoreceptors to the different energy of the photons of various colors 40. Elevated levels of Ca2+ are involved in which of the following processes? a. secretion of amylase from aleurone cells E. cafiliziC—milfile contraction . skeletallnusgle contraction d. riéurotransmfiter release I ' '_ _ — , all of the above 10 41. After 6 rounds of mitosis in the fertilized Drosophila egg, how many nuclei and how many cells are present? a. 1 cell, 1 nucleus 13. - 2 cells, 32 nuclei _, . 64 cells, 64 nuclei [/f @1 cell, 64 nuclei 6. 1 cell, 2 nuclei (sperm and egg) 42. Thggigmentnflthe amphibian egg marks the animal pole, buLalhino eggs lacking pigment develop normally. Thus, the functional polarity of the egg depends on some localized molecule other than pigment. Based on what you know about the Drosophila egg, what might that localized molecule be? a. ribosomes h. DNA _ c. acetylcholine / __/d.norep.inephrine " (c.}mRN§_____. ‘ ‘ 11 (8%» Final Exam, Spring, 2004, Part 2 Name (Printed) Signature Student Number Enter your name and student number in the space above 1. The diagram below shows the innervation of heart by the autonomic nervous system. Niel-ems from Peripheral Mechano- Brain Stern Centers and Chen'lareceptors Vagal Nucleus Paramedian Heticular Nucleus of the Vasomotor Center Bulbospinal Adrenergic and Serotoninergic Fibers Spinal Cord A. (1) Which branch of the autonomic nervous sfiem is indicated by the circled fibers ‘ c. marked A in the diagram? 5 m oA‘ke B. (2) The neurotransmitter releaséd byI those fibers at the synapse with the heart is norepinephn'ne. What is the physical nature of the receptor for NE on heart muscle; that is how is it inserted in the membrane? 1 — EM: 133 “539.94% 8) C.(2) When the receptor binds NE, what molecule does the receptor interac ~ ~ 4, G—T with? c, guerokiu (as) C gswh‘smm aim D. (2) What does the molecule Identified in}? do when activated? fies-iiwa 00““9'1 ‘ Q‘Ici G‘m E. (2) What soluble second messenger’s concentration increases as a result of D above? g &f‘1f F. (6) The second messenger increase in E. activates protein kinase A. In heart muscle, what protein is the target of PKA, what modification of the protein is induced by PKA, and which amino acids might be the target of the modification? TargetofPKA: " u-Qa‘m. «25-4190 ic‘iuw chuMe—i Nature of the modification: in,an I“! has her W Possible amino acids: ,5 gfl‘w , i'inr‘h- vulfi 4—: a,“ up Name (printed) 1 . (1 5) A. (10) In the diagram below, various components of the vertebrate skeletal muscle are labeled with letters A through J. From the list of possible components, write the name of the component beside its letter. Note that some components may be used more than once. Possible Components: actin, myosin, Ca2+, cyclic GMP, ACh receptor, tropomyosin, troponin C, sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubule, sarcomere, z-band, ATP. G-nrntein B. (5) These questions relate to skeletal muscle. Refer to the component list in part A. 21. Where does Ca2+ come from within the muscle fibers? 5 ug; 325w; c. (1.3—; an lb“. b. What protein does Ca2+ bind to? WQQM‘ c. and d. What two proteins are allowed to interact when the protein in b. binds Ca ‘54. q. E I ‘4 e. What protein hydrolyzes ATP and produces force? I47 0,2 M 2+9 Name (Printed) 3. (10) Shown below is an Off-Center receptive field. Identify the four cell types that are shown by writing their names in the blanks. In the remaining blanks, write the letters of the responses of the membrane potential to light in the indicated portion of the receptive field. Name (printed) 4- (5) A. PIMHQ membrane f B, Dijk Mambrmne Place the following molecules in the correct compartment of the vertebrate rod cell by I placing the letter of the compartment next to the molecule. L'l' . Phosphod fish-ruse E S-VOl+fl-5Q*8crh£,\ No. Chaungl E (mw&m&'u come-5M) ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course BIOL 131 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Bio Final 04 - {of Biology 131 Final Examination May 6,...

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