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Bio test 2 practice 4

Bio test 2 practice 4 - he Biology 13 1 Examination 2 March...

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Unformatted text preview: he}. Biology 13 1 Examination 2 March 1, 2005 You may wish to remove this page for easy reference. If you do, be careful to leave the other pages stapled together. RT x, V,=-ln—- ' FZ xi. X0 X, . V, = 25mV ln— = 58mV log}— ,for a monovalent cation, X. For a diavalent ion, the above equations must be divided by 2 (z = 2), thus VG, = 29 mV log (Cangai). For a monovalent anion such as Cl‘, 2 = -I, so Va = -58 mV log (Clo/Ch). V»: = V: “ Va F =105 coulombsfmole (RTIF) = 25 mV ”#114112 ‘P=P—II A‘I’=(R.—P,)—(1‘I,—1‘Io) “P” here is the same as “le” that we have sometimes used. Pi — P0 = turgor pressure. Lx atm 2 C: where C,- refers to the concentration of the i different 1'1 = RTE C, m 25 a . - mo! -: solutes in the solution and RT is calculated at 300K. L = #61): ”MD: ”/2131 in 3, 2 and 1 dimensions, respectively. Thus, I increases with L2, so I = szeu, L2f4D, mm. The pressure generated by the meniscus of water: P = -2Tfrc, where T is the surface tension of water '(7 x 10'8 MPa-m=70 x 10'3 me) and r, is the radius of curvature of the meniscus. 1 Pa = 1 joulez’mz’; 1 atm = 0.1 MPa = 760 mmHg :5 10 m H20 Constants, Algebraic Relationships, and Conversion Factors log 10 = 1; log 2 z 0.3; log 3 as 0.5; log 5 as 0.7;10g100 = 2; log 1000=3, etc. log (NB) = -log(B;’A) = log A h log B log (AOB) = log A + log B; thus log 50 = log 10 + log 5 =1+ 0.7 =1.7 log(10") = x Avogadro’s number = 6x1023 1pm =10'3 mm =10'4 cm 1 L=103 inL=103cm3 As prefixes to units, c = 102, m = 10'3, u = 106, n = 10"), K. = 103 For a sphere, Volume = 41tr3l3, Area = 47:12, In Bio 131, 712 = 3. Speed of light in vacuum, c = 3 x 108 m/s; energy of a photon, E = hem, h = 6.6 10'34joule I s WRITE LEGIBLYEI (IN INK, IF YOU WANT TO RESERVE THE POSSIBILITY OF A REGRADE.) ORGANIZE YOUR ANSWERSEI Name (Printed) Signature 1. (15) Make a diagram of one ofthe plant cells that is involved in the absorption of nutrients and water from the soil and identify the cell. Be sure to show the main anatomical feature that relates to its function, and name the organ and tissue type that the cell is part of. Describe the mechanism by which these cells take up K+, Cl', and H20 in the space provided. You will need to mention ion channels, pumps (including primary active transport and secondary active transport), protons, and water potential in your answer. a. (5) Put your diagram and «- identification km): + '| U a of the cell here. l“ Or" a.“ 1 Ron + Ti “Twat Derwel (L roo‘i‘ hair CLQQ b. (2) Approximate value of Vm and the mechanism of its generation (only one or two sentences are-needed to-answer this and thefollowing questions): ‘ \jmz - ISOHV — armav. W {mime/Lily, L? 11,; HtFlTPw-e. c. (2) Mechanism of K+ uptake: BM Vm 'u anaamvg 'H/IWH VK) K'l‘ owl-W HM WW WW9}. “Ewes/2‘ K+ channel} (1. (2) Mechanism of Cl" uptake: .. . M C! Beam VP“ 1.5 mm Hera-MU: H40“ Vgl 0‘ l‘) I- "S M Wm)s.a-i+tsaM-f-IMQK-J-im M461 [4 , (.l WWI" ~ _ *Mm—pflxskaelbasumww Wigs 31” W” M M firSW- upt e: . ”mu, unis, an “1‘1““ M We!) ,‘v... M "ll/g 41% f. (2) Plants must accumulate phosphorus from soil in the form of phosphate (HPO42'). How might they accomplish this? Ba oval-iv: bowie") Mk} H+ M”; me’fl'rw' , Name (Printed) Signature 2. (10) The following questions refer to the cells shown below. (A) (a) r—L 20 pm a. (2) What is the name of the cells and where are they found (be as specific as possible)? ‘: ll “‘9 wflj‘ou £W¢Q “L'i-Lf We‘fl r; 'Eauu. Tu? ow; WG-94 3/04 M use . b. (2) The movement of one particular molecule causes the conversion fiom (A) to (B) and (B) to (A) in the above photo. What is that molecule and which way does it move in the conversion (A) to (B)? H20. I+mOveM4fl1cfll~fi4muMmufiAinE. c. (2) What are the external (to the cells) signals that causes the conversions? (A)to(B) HEH m- M (B) to (A) Btu hgfij d. (4) What is the function of the conversions; that is, what is going on in state (A) and why is it necessary, and why is there a need to go state (B)? Put your answers in the appropriate spaces below. Ms 3 n-Hmli IA 9 crew“; Ina) Name (Printed) Signature 3. (10) This question refers to the role of gibberellin in meeting the nutritional needs of the developing seedling of a cereal grain such as barley. a. State what cells gibberellin acts on, what effect gibberellin has on cytoplasmic Ca2+ of those cells and what process the change in Ca2+ mediates. ”wk,“ M can) W5 WC“? no mum/w! wawmw“ ”i W“ Cmdhl.flMfiMI 3 Willa“. b. What is the effect of gibberellin on gene activity of the target cells? That is, where are the genes, what gene is activated, what is the immediate product of that activation, where in the cell does this product go, and what is the final product of the gene activation? A well labeled diagram will be help to simplify your answer and will save you ward . n W amaze.) MM»; mime 31M"- Mia-flan MEN“ Name (Printed) Signature 4. (10) Shown below on the left are the absorbance spectra for the two forms of the phytochrome molecule. The x-axis of this graph shows the fraction of the light that is absorbed by a suspension of the molecules as a function of the wavelength of the light. Shown on the right are the two forms of the phytochrome molecule. Thioether linkage Absorlm. uqn a. (2) Which absorbance spectrum, 1 or 2, is for Pa? .1. Which is for P,? I . b. (2) In the representation of P5, circle the pat of the molecule that absorbs light. Circle the protein pan of the Pt 0. (6) Suppose that lettuce seeds are stored in the dark on a moist surface. What form will phytochrome be in, Pr or 1%,? fi- . Will the seeds germinate? flo Suppose the seeds that are dark-stored are then exposed to a pulse of 67'0 nm light. What form will phytochrome be in? REC Will the seeds germinate? \] 65 Suppose dark stored seeds are exposed to sunlight. What form will phytochrome be in? 9’:— Will the seeds germinate? fies Name (Printed) Signature 5. (10) a. (3) What fundamental biological process leads to the production of a microspore? m g; g‘ A How many fimctional microspores are produced from a single microspore mother cell (microsporocyte)? 5f How many sperm cells are finally produced from a single microspore mother cell? 5’ . This question can be answered with one word and two numbers each written in the blanks. b. (2) How many fimctional megaspores are produced from a single megaspore mother cell (megasporocyte)? I How many eggs are finally produced from a single megaspore mother cell? 1 c. (5) What is the process by which sperm cells are delivered to the ovuole? Start with the arrival of the desiccated sperm—bearing apparatus (name?) on the stigma and end with the fertilization events. You do not need to discuss calcium’s role in this process. 6. (5) If the total solute concentration in the cytosol of a plant cell is 200 111M and the total solute concentration outside the cell is 190 mM, what will be the turgor pressure of the cell? Express your answer both in atmospheres and in meters of water. Tut/urn. W 2?: Pi." P0 .41— leugxibri'mmJ It. 2 1P0 L T: . = F“- o: We‘rro: RT(%C'n—- ECO") 2". 9-5 L 4.4% (9.009“ _|10Wl"1) ma _ L calm "IQL, ;-_ 9-5“ m _ a; mi 10 L O I 3.5m Name (Printed) Signature 7. (10) The following questions refer to the response of a seedling to light from one side. a. What is the response of the seedling? 1+ 31m +WMWM- b. What portion of the spectmm (color) is responsible for the effect? Bi kn. . c. What part of the coleoptile detects the light? TLQ-iip d. What hormone mediates the light response and in what direction is it initially moved in response to the light? A diagram showing where the hormone first ' moves and in what direction with respect to the light direction will help. Anus“ (lam weak: o-eiénrsfi). line at m g-l-Cap HN—CHl—fl HN—Cliz—CH—TC/CHJ / N 0 / N “‘01on M l I ‘> “L I *> ‘R x H ' H OH cu3 OH OH H . , HO \ H HO 0 CH3 CH3 Name (Printed) Signature 8. (10) a. (5) Auxin (indole acetic acid, 1AA) is transported unilaterally in the stems of seedlings. What is the direction of auxin transport and what experiment established the direction? Diagramswillhelp. Ifl'fl a tan ”M firm .11“ SMQH‘JQ’QBM +0‘HMWMCbm-E). Mmeu}W Mat/QM— Lo-nM M'Hn. MMUE IAH CIHA" . HUM 1H4. b. What is the critical specialization of hypocotyl cells that gives directionality to the movement of auxin? To answer this, you need only mention the form of auxin in the cytoplasm of cells and how it gets out. You are NOT asked to discuss the movement of auxin between cells and how it gets into cells. Again, a clearly labeled diagram will be useful. amt WW (mm. WW1 pm 19-F- ovu. [rock-rug 413' WWW “WW- Name (Printed) Signature 9. (5) Plants require nitrogen from the soil. In legumes, the roots become infected with Rhizobium bacteria, which convert atmospheric nitrogen to a useable form. What is the chemical form of atmospheric nitrogen? A}: 0" N 5” To what chemical form do the Rhizobiiim bacteria convert nitrogen? [\_} H3 . Plants do not take up large amounts the form of nitrogen produce by Rhizobium bacteria. Why not? #2 ”3 a fight. What is the chemical form of nitrogen that is taken up by plants? N 03'— By what mechanism do roots take up the form of nitrogen mentioned immediately abovc?#g%jmm}MMQ-Mcd MM ‘Ftn Cid/‘33. .57“ t) \M "360210 1%: fl“ Pd 10. (5) One of the forms of phytochrome absorbs red light, and @hght IS quite effective How much radiant energy (in joules) must be absorbed to convert 106 molecules of P to Ptr, using 660 nm light? $312.14 WMM MMMhM-TM g tot-WM Wm Jame/awn '0 Md Pr “(J-Fr. _. __ a. M W210G' hi tauw— lo ems/~33»; P 9 A '06. gflxlo J-A. “3"i0 “d '3' 559x10“ ‘Tm ‘9 {0‘5”} 340qu -1‘! :: BAND 3 Name (Printed) Signature 11. (5) The following values refer to measured water potentials at various places in or near a plant (in MPa): ~O.6, —0.8, ~95.0, ~0.3, —0.5. Write the appropriate values next to the compartment listed below. Soil, 10 mm from the root " 0 ' 3 Dirac/1346‘ a; oral-u. Prevent-39. Soil, adjacent to the root '- O r 5 mm,“ M... m: ,‘urfi Root xylem * O . (a Lad“: 3 J i J J13 Cell wall of mesophyll cell 1n leaf ‘ l I I : g 3 1 b0 Outside air (relative humidity = 50%) - as. o wart an. ‘4' ° w a“ ' 12. (5) a. (3) How much pressure (in MPa) is required to lift just to the top of a tree that is 100 m tall? (Note that there may be useful conversion factors and equations on the covervagel Mid-m3 Mu we. :- o.m€a nurse mass um». W5 MW Leann £;~C+ Wm room b. (2) If capillarity is to supply the pressure needed from part a, what must be the radius of curvature of the water at the end of the 100 In column? Again, useful information is found on the cover page. l" _' _ 9:!” _ -3_» 7xlo"$r‘lPa-Y‘i a” 9 " amok [Li-xlo‘gm : ILiDnm — ’9 10 ...
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