Wk. 5 Skeletal System & Muscle Structure.pptx - Skeletal...

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Skeletal System &Muscle StructureIntroductionBone TissueBone AnatomyBone FormationHormonesCharacteristics &FunctionsConnective TissuesAnatomy of Muscle CellOrganization of MyofiberSarcomere &Myofilaments
I. Introduction to SkeletalSystemA. An internal framework of bones and cartilageB. Composed of various tissues1. Bone2. Cartilage3. Epithelium4. Fat5. Neurons
C. Functions1. Support2. ProtectionSkull protects brain, rib cage protects heart and lungs3. MovementBones provide rigid points of attachment for muscles to pullagainst4. Mineral storageStores calcium and phosphorus5. Blood cell productionRed blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets areproduced within bones6. Fat storageMarrow cavity within many bones
II. Bone TissueA. Introduction1. A kind of connective tissue2. Bone is more rigid than other connective tissues because itcontains crystals of inorganic calcium salts3. Network of collagen fibers provides flexibility and strengthCollagen fibers act like the rebar in reinforced concreteB. Compact or dense bone tissue1. Bone that contains few spaces2. Forms a layer over spongy bone3. Provides maximum protection, support and strength4. Has a concentric ring structure
Figure6.12Diagram of Compact Bone(a)This cross-sectional view ofcompact bone shows the basicstructural unit, the osteon.(b)In this micrograph of the osteon,you can clearly see theconcentric lamellae and centralcanals. LM × 40. (Micrographprovided by the Regents ofUniversity of Michigan MedicalSchool © 2012)
C. Spongy or cancellous bone tissue1. Contains many large spaces2. Makes up most of the bone tissue of:i. Skull bones and vertebraeii. Epiphyses or tips of long bones3. Latticeworks of thin bone plates are called trabeculae4. In some bones, the spaces are filled with red marrow whichproduces blood cells5. Spongy bone provides the greatest strength with the leastweight
Figure 6.13Diagram of Spongy BoneSpongy bone is composed of trabeculae that contain the osteocytes. Redmarrow fills the spaces in some bones.
Figure 6.9Anatomy of a Flat BoneThis cross-section of a flat bone shows the spongy bone lined on eitherside by a layer of compact bone.
III. Bone AnatomyParts of a typical long bone:A. Diaphysis – the shaft of the boneB. Epiphyses1. The ends of the bone2. Usually larger in diameter than the shaft3. Spongy bone in the epiphyses may contain red marrowwhich functions in manufacture of red blood cells.C. Metaphysis1. The region in a mature bone where the shaft (diaphysis)joins the end (epiphysis)2. In a growing bone this is called the epiphyseal plate wherecartilage is being replaced by bone as bone increases in length3. When bone growth ceases, the epiphyseal plate is replacedby the epiphyseal line
D. Medullary or marrow cavity1. Space within the diaphysis2. Contains fatty yellow marrow in adults which functions in fatstorageE. Endosteum1. Layer of osteoblasts (cells that build bone) lining the marrowcavity2. Also contains scattered osteoclasts, cells which remove boneF. Articular cartilageThin layer of cartilage covering the epiphysis at a joint with another boneG. Periosteum1. Fibrous covering around the bone, where it is not covered bycartilage2. Consists of:i. Connective tissue containing blood vesselsii. Lymphatic vesselsiii. Nervesiv. Cells that can become osteoblasts

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Term
Fall
Professor
Armacost
Tags
epiphyseal plate

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