Kross 2013 Facebook Subjective Well-Being - Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults Ethan Kross1 Philippe Verduyn2 Emre

Kross 2013 Facebook Subjective Well-Being - Facebook Use...

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Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults Ethan Kross 1 * , Philippe Verduyn 2 , Emre Demiralp 1 , Jiyoung Park 1 , David Seungjae Lee 1 , Natalie Lin 1 , Holly Shablack 1 , John Jonides 1 , Oscar Ybarra 1 1 Psychology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, 2 Psychology Department, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people ‘‘directly’’ did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people’s Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. Citation: Kross E, Verduyn P, Demiralp E, Park J, Lee DS, et al. (2013) Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. PLoS ONE 8(8): e69841. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069841 Editor: Ce ´dric Sueur, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, France Received January 31, 2013; Accepted June 12, 2013; Published August 14, 2013 Copyright: ß 2013 Kross et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: [email protected] Introduction Online social networks are rapidly changing the way human beings interact. Over a billion people belong to Facebook, the world’s largest online social network, and over half of them log in daily [1]. Yet, no research has examined how interacting with Facebook influences subjective well-being over time. Indeed, a recent article that examined every peer-reviewed publication and conference proceeding on Facebook between 1/2005 and 1/2012 (412 in total) did not reveal a single study that examined how using this technology influences subjective well-being over time (Text S1) [2].

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