Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Beingin Young AdultsEthan Kross1*, Philippe Verduyn2, Emre Demiralp1, Jiyoung Park1, David Seungjae Lee1, Natalie Lin1,Holly Shablack1, John Jonides1, Oscar Ybarra11Psychology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America,2Psychology Department, University of Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstractOver 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over timeis unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behaviorand psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook useinfluences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they arewith their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. Themore people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more theyused Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people‘‘directly’’ did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people’s Facebooknetworks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. Onthe surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather thanenhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.Citation:Kross E, Verduyn P, Demiralp E, Park J, Lee DS, et al. (2013) Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. PLoS ONE 8(8):e69841. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069841Editor:Ce´dric Sueur, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, FranceReceivedJanuary 31, 2013;AcceptedJune 12, 2013;PublishedAugust 14, 2013Copyright:ß2013 Kross et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permitsunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Funding:The authors have no support or funding to report.Competing Interests:The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.* E-mail: [email protected]IntroductionOnline social networks are rapidly changing the way humanbeings interact. Over a billion people belong to Facebook, theworld’s largest online social network, and over half of them log indaily . Yet, no research has examined how interacting withFacebook influences subjective well-being over time. Indeed, arecent article that examined every peer-reviewed publication andconference proceeding on Facebook between 1/2005 and 1/2012(412 in total) did not reveal a single study that examined how usingthis technology influences subjective well-being over time (Text S1).