139 13F Blood - BLOOD Bio 139 Fall 2013 Dr Michael W...

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BLOOD Bio 139 – Fall 2013 Dr. Michael W. Thompson
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Functions of blood Transports gases, nutrients, and wastes Moves molecules from one organ to another Transport of regulatory molecules Regulates pH of body fluids Regulates osmolality of body fluids Maintains body temperature Protects against invading pathogens Assists in wound healing
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Composition of blood
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Plasma Liquid portion of blood Classified as a colloid (many particles are not dissolved) Composed of 91% H 2 O, 7% proteins, 2% other solutes Plasma proteins Albumin Clotting proteins (mostly fibrinogen) Antibodies and complement Other solutes Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , other ions CO 2 , O 2 Wastes (urea, creatinine, and others)
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Albumin About 58% of plasma protein Produced by liver About half of total protein output of the liver! A highly polar, negatively charged protein with many hydrophobic clefts
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Albumin Maintenance of osmotic pressure Makes plasma more viscous Low albumin may cause edema Transport of fatty acids & sterols Transport of hormones, bilirubin (a metabolite of hemoglobin) Binding and solubilization of some drugs
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Other plasma proteins Complement Proteins involved in inflammation Transport proteins Transferrin – transports iron, other metals Ceruloplasmin – transports copper Antibodies Mediate immune response Clotting proteins Used to repair tears in blood vessels Fibrinogen is main protein (forms clots when activated)
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Formed elements Erythrocytes Red blood cells 95% of formed elements Transport O 2 and CO 2 Leukocytes (white blood cells) Mediate inflammation, immunity Platelets Assist in some types of clotting
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Erythrocytes About 95% of formed elements Biconcave, non-motile cells Depend on circulation of blood for movement Do not contain nuclei or many organelles These are lost during hematopoiesis Filled mostly with hemoglobin (binds O 2 ) and Carbonic Anhydrase (converts CO 2 to H 2 CO 3 ) Circulate about 110-120 days
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Erythrocytes and Hemoglobin
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Functions of erythrocytes Transport O 2 and CO 2 Biconcave shape accelerates gas exchange by increasing surface area O 2 is transported by hemoglobin (an iron-containing protein) CO 2 is transported by conversion to bicarbonate Mediated by carbonic anhydrase
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Hemoglobin (Hb) A protein composed of 4 subunits ( 2 2 ) and 4 heme groups There are several types of subunits (embryonic and fetal) Heme group on each subunit contains an iron atom
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