139 13F Immune System(2) - IMMUNE SYSTEM Bio 139 Fall 2013...

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IMMUNE SYSTEM Bio 139 Fall 2013 Dr. Michael W. Thompson
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Immune system Ability to recognize and remove foreign substances Two types Innate (nonspecific) immunity Removal procedure same every time invader found Adaptive (specific) immunity Body recognizes, destroys invader, but will remember it and respond more efficiently with additional exposure
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Immunity Adaptive immunity Innate immunity Immunity Barriers (skin, etc.) Humoral (B cell pathway) Cell-mediated (T cell pathway) B cell antibody recognizes antigen; activates B cell Plasma cell Memory B cell Chemical modification (Complement) Cytotoxic T cells Helper T cells Finds, kills infected or abnormal cells
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Innate immunity Four mechanisms Mechanical obstacles to entry Skin provides such a barrier Chemical mediators Lead to destruction of pathogen Complement Inflammation Phagocytic cells Engulf, digest pathogen Release chemotactic chemicals to summon help
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Chemical mediators – complement Complement is a group of 20 proteins (about 10% of blood globulins) Include C1-C9, factors B, D, P Activated in a cascade Alternative pathway (part of innate immunity) Activation of C3 and binding of it to a pathogen sets off this pathway Classical pathway Set off by adaptive immunity (antibody-mediated)
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Complement C3 is activated May be spontaneously activated for no reason in particular Usually inactivated quickly by normal body cells BUT... if it combines with foreign invaders and factors B, D, and P, it will remain active and set off the cascade Antibodies have complement binding sites and may stabilize activated C3 Five complement proteins form membrane attack complex (MAC) Forms hole in membrane of pathogen Influx of ions and water cause lysis of pathogen May also stimulate phagocytosis
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Complement cascade
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What does complement do?
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Inflammation A NECESSARY local defense response to tissue injury or infection Purposes: Kill pathogens Cleanup – remove cellular debris/damaged tissue Initiate tissue repair Symptoms: Redness Swelling Heat Pain
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What starts inflammation?
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