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Functions, Diseases, Projections 1st page

Functions, Diseases, Projections 1st page - The pars...

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Functions Pineal Gland : The functions of the pineal gland are not completely understood. It is the only unilateral structure in the brain. The pineal gland is thought to have a role in gonadal function and the circadian rhythm. The pineal gland secretes melatonin, serotonin, and norepinephrine. This process is important for the onset of sleep. Basically, these biogenic amines are secreted throughout the day until the threshold of fatigue is reached, usually at the end of the day, when sleep onset is first felt. Cerebral Aqueduct : Contains Cerebrospinal fluid and connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. Substantia Nigra : The substantia nigra is a major relay for planned movement. The substantia nigra has two parts: the pars reticulata and the pars compacta. The main function of the pars reticulata is muscular eye movements while the main function of the pars compacta is skeletal muscle movement. The two components of the substantia nigra are also involved in other functions.
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Unformatted text preview: The pars compacta is responsible for dopamine production and hence is involved in pleasure and addiction. The pars reticulata is responsible for creating action potentials in the absence of synaptic input. Diseases Pineal Gland : Parinaud’s syndrome is a condition where a pineal lesion presses on a pretectal area or the posterior commissure, causing loss of vertical gaze. Cerebral Aqueduct : A blockage of this duct can cause hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid which causes pressure on the skull and brain, followed by an enlarged head and possibly convulsions. Substantia Nigra : Perhaps the most well known disease associated with the substantia nigra is Parkinson’s. Deterioration of the pigmented and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is the underlying cause of Parkinson’s disease. Projections Pineal Gland : N/A Cerebral Aqueduct : N/A Substantia Nigra : Composed of two zones, the zona compacta and the zona reticulata....
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