HUM 111 CLASSICAL GREECE III:
RELIGION AND THE ARTS
Professor Sonia Sorrell
Theater of Dionysus:
ancient Mystery Religion of the Cult of Dionysus
Agora: lower city, meeting place, marked with boundary stones as sacred area
Panathenaic Festival: every 4 years, celebrated birth of Athena, Athens’ civic deity;
every one in Athens participated in this festival;
Athena – goddess of war strategy; more of a masculine goddess; dressed in a Doric style;
never married never has children;
Didn’t invent the fluting on the columns, but changed the style of the columns.
Orders of Columns:
Doric = mainland Greeks, masculine, austere, plain, massive,
simple, no base, based on the module of a man’s foot (truly
humanism in its purist form, putting human traits in something like
Ionic = Asia Minor, feminine, decorative, elaborate, finer (frillier,
moldings, more flutes, more elaborate base, analogize the column
to the woman and based on the module of a woman’s foot, they
would typically use Doric column on the outside of building and
used Ionic column on the inside of the building.)
Corinthian = Greek development, used by later cultures (developed
in Corinth, and had leafy sculpture and top, rarely used by Greeks,
but borrowed by the Romans and used a lot.)
Doric + Ionic = balance (masculine/feminine; Dorian/Ionian) =
order (to use both types of columns reflects balance).
Humanism – Gods were human like, Greek painted themselves as humans and other
peoples as animals.
In philosophy, the idea of human reason was the focus, how do you
live this good life.
In literature – human activities, human free will.
In democracy –
Greeks were the first to believe that they could rule themselves.
In religion, the gods
were portrayed as having human like qualities.
Acropolis (high city):
rebuilt during the second half of the fifth century BC
Persian Wars, Delian League (set aside money in case Persians ever
return), funds used by Pericles to rebuild Acropolis (in Athens).
thought it was more important to have Athena on their side then to have
Pericles: “Buildings live on long after man’s deeds are forgotten.”