History 2057 Notes Paper 4 - Paper4 Lecture 1 The Bomb and...

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Paper 4Lecture 1: The Bomb and the Start of the Cold WarI.The BombHiroshima and Nagasakio1945 bomb dropped on both cities as a solution to end the war faster with less American casualtieso"We are the only country with this technology; not only to end the war but to demonstrate to the world that we are superior" Message to the soviet unionoShow of powerFirst bomb in Hiroshima killed 60,000 people immediately; then more died from radiationIt convinced the Soviet Union to join the war against JapanThe US drops bomb in Nagasaki and kills 36,000 people which leads to Japan's surrenderoSoviet Union suffered the most losses of civilian and propertyoThe US suffered the least (fewer than 300,000 military deaths)Just over 100,000 non-military deaths80% of Americans wanted the US to be a part of the League of Nations1/3 of the population didn't expected another war in the next 30 years3 years later, President Truman accuses the Soviet Union of wanting to take over EuropeBy 1950, the National Security Agency concluded that the world is in a polarization of power. Other countries are trying to enslave the free people, and the US is trying to keep people freeThe Soviet Union wanted the US should share their nuclear secrets b/c that’s too great of power for one countryThe goal of the US is to contain communism II. Origins of the Cold WarGeorge KennanThe Truman DoctrineThe Marshall Plan(1948) oUS funds are available for countries who are economically unstablefrom the war, and want these countries to be capitalists and democraticoThe Soviet Union sees this as the US trying to spread its ideas using moneyoSU pushes their ideas out as well in response
oThis plan pumps 13 billion dollars into Europe to help rebuild their citiesoThe countries of Western Europe have to cooperate in coordinatingb their economies (closer economic ties)The Berlin AirliftoTruman responds with airlifts to drop off supplies to allow them to overcome this effort to cause starvationoSoviet Union block off roads to bring in supplies (food, clothing, medicine)The blockade was to get the Western countries to give up BerlinIf Berlin falls to the SU, it’s only a matter of time before Western Germany falls as well.oEast (independent) and West Germany create separate governments; they don't come back together for 40 yearsNATO (North Atlantic Treaty Association)oin order to protect the economic stake, they have to form a pact; if someone attacked England, that would mean they were also attacking the USChina and the BomboAmerican Intelligence is getting signals that mean the Soviet Union have created atomic weapons; build up of artillery to discourage theother side to start a fight Chiang Kai-Shekowants to run the country similar to the US; nationalistMao Tse-Tung (Zedong)owants China to become a communist countryoThe US doesn't recognize his way of government as the official government of China

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