ch._14_notes_ap - Chapter 14: The Civil War I. The...

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Chapter 14: The Civil WarI.The Secession CrisisA.The Withdrawal of the SouthSouth Carolina, long the hotbed of Southern separatism, seceded firstBy the time Lincoln took office, six others seceded. In February 1861, representatives of the seven seceded states met at Montgomery, Alabama, and formed theConfederate States of AmericaThe seceding states immediately seized the federal property within their boundariesIn January 1861, merchant ship proceeded to fort Sumter with additional troops and suppliesoConfederate guns on shore fired at the vessel- first shots between N and S- and turned it backB.The Failure of CompromiseCrittenden Compromise called for several constitutional amendments, which would guarantee the permanent existence of slavery on the slave states and satisfy such issues as fugitive slaves and slavery in the District of ColumbiaoHeart of Crittenden’s plan was a proposal to reestablish the Missouri Compromise lineIn his inaugural address Lincoln laid down several basic principlesoSince the Union was older than the Constitution, no state could leave itoActs of force or violence to support secession were insurrectionary oGovernment would “hold, occupy, and possess” federal property in the seceded states- a clear reference to Fort SumterC.Fort SumterConfederate leaders decided that to appear cowardly would be worse than to appear belligerentOrdered General P.G.T. Beauregard to take the island, by force if necessaryAnderson refused to surrender the fort, Confederates bombarded it for two days, April 12-13, 1861oOn April 14, Anderson surrendered, Civil War had begunFour more slave states seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy Four remaining slave states- Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri- cast their lot with the UnionD.The Opposing SidesAll the material advantages lay with the NorthoIts population was more than twice as largeoUnion had a much greater manpower reserve both its armies and its work forceoNorth had an advanced industrial systemoSouth had almost no industry at all and had to rely on imports from Europe throughout the waroNorth had a much better transportation system, and in particular more and better railroadsoSouth was fighting a defensive war and thus had the advantage of local support and familiarity with the territoryCommitment of the white population of the South to the war was clear and firmoIn the North, opinion about the war was more divided and support for it remained shakyoFinally Southerners believed that the dependence of the English and French textile industries on American cotton would require them to intervene on the side of the Confederacy II.The Mobilization of the NorthA.Economic MeasuresHomestead Act of 1862 permitted any citizen to claim 160 acres of public land and to purchase it for a small fee after living on it for five yearsMorrill Land Grant Act led to the creation of many new state colleges and universities

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Abraham Lincoln, Civil War, The American, Shiloh, American Civil War, Confederate States of America

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