HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I.docx - HUMAN ANATOMY AND...

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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY IAnatomy, from the roots "ana" (apart) and "tom" (cut), is the study of the form of the body.Anatomyis the study of structure of the body and the physical relationships involved betweenBody systems. Refers to the structure of the body, meaning bones, muscles and tissues.Physiologyis the study of how the systems of the body work, and the ways in which their integratedcooperation maintains life and health of the individual (is about how the body functions to maintain life).Physiology:is the study of the function of the human body.KINDS OF ANATOMICAL STUDIESMicroscopic anatomyis the study of structures that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. You need amicroscope.Gross anatomyby systems is the study of organ systems, such as the respiratory system or the digestivesystem.Gross anatomy by regions considers anatomy in terms of regions such as the trunk, upper member, orlower member.Neuroanatomystudies the nervous system.Functional anatomyis the study of relationships between functions and structures.Levels of Human body OrganizationThe body is organized into levels that build upon each other.It begins with the smallest atoms and molecules that control the chemical reactions required for thebody to function.The basic structural and functional units in the body---cells---are the next level.Learning how different cells work is key to understanding how organs and systems function.Cells with specific roles come together to create tissues.Two or more different tissues working together form an organ.A group of organs with a common purpose is called a system.For example, the respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi andlungs.REGIONS OF THE HUMAN BODYThe human body is a single, total composite. Everything works together. Each part acts inassociation with ALL other parts. Yet, it is also a series of regions. Each region is responsible forcertain body activities. These regions are:
Back and Trunk. The torso includes the back and trunk. The trunk includes the thorax (chest) andabdomen. At the lower end of the trunk is the pelvis. The perineum is the portion of the bodyforming the floor of the pelvis. The lungs, the heart, and the digestive system are found in the trunk.Head and Neck. The brain, eyes, ears, mouth, pharynx, and larynx are found in this region.Members. Each upper member includes a shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. Each lowermember includes a hip, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot.ANATOMICAL POSITIONThe anatomical position is an artificial posture of the human body. In the anatomical position, thebody stands erect, with heels together. Upper members are along the sides, with the palms of thehands facing forward. The head faces forward.Anatomical PositionsThe four main anatomical positions are: supine, prone, right lateralrecumbent, and left lateral recumbent. Each position is used indifferent medical circumstances.

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