Exercise is Medicine TM : Scientific Basis for Physical Activity KIN 3534 Intro Lecture “Eating alone will not keep a man well; he must also take exercise. For food and exercise, while possessing opposite qualities, yet work together to produce health. For it is the nature of exercise to use up material, but of food and drink to make good deficiencies. And it is necessary, as it appears, to discern the power of various exercises, both natural and artificial, to know which of them tends to increase flesh and which to lessen it; and not only this, but also to proportion exercise to bulk of food, to the constitution of the patient, to the age of the individual, to the season of the year, to the changes in the winds, to the situation of the region in which the patient resides, and to the constitution of the year” - Hippocrates. Regimen: Book 1, 400 BC
Please Read before next Lecture • 2008 Federal Guidelines for PA • Chapters 1 and 2 in Guidelines • Review Preliminary Section in Resource M. – Focus on: • Chapter 3: Exercise Physiology • Chapter 6: CVD • Chapter 8: Metabolic Disease • Chapter 10: Legal Considerations • Chapters 11, 12, and 13 in Resource M.
Outline • Definitions • CDC trends in the U.S./Louisiana • Exercise is Medicine TM • 2008 Federal Guidelines • Epidemiologic support • Risk to benefit trade-off • Clinical trials
Definitions • Physical activity (PA) – Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in caloric requirements over resting energy expenditure • Exercise – A type of physical activity consisting of planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and/or maintain one or more components of physical fitness • Physical fitness – A set of attributes or characteristics that individuals have or achieve that relates to their ability to perform physical activity
Definitions • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) – Heart and blood vessel disease; includes heart attack and stroke in addition to heart failure, arrhythmia, and heart valve problems. • Coronary heart disease (CHD) – The buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis) that can lead to a heart attack. • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) – A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due an inability of insulin secreted by the pancreatic beta cells to promote glucose uptake by the tissues. • Hypertension (HTN) – High systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure.
Physical Activity, Obesity, and Diabetes Trends BRFSS – Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System • Survey that collects six behavioral health risk factors: 1. Smoking 2. Alcohol use 3. Physical activity 4. Diet 5. Hypertension (HTN) 6. Safety belt use • In 2011, > 500k interviews were conducted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation. National Diabetes Surveillance System available at Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ) Diabetes <4.5% Missing data 4.5 - 5.9% 6.0 - 7.4% 7.5 - 8.9% ≥9.0% 18.0 -21.9% <14.0% Missing Data 14.0 - 17.9% 22.0 - 25.9% ≥26.0% Age-adjusted Percentage of U.S. Adults Who Were Obese or Who Had Diagnosed Diabetes 1994
CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation.
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