3- Primate Survey of Strepsirhines, Tarsiiformes & NWM 3 slides

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Unformatted text preview: page 42 in the textbook Survey of the Primates Strepsirhines, Tarsiiformes & New World Monkeys 2014 Objective: Who’s Who • Strepsirrhini • Lemurs & Lorises • Haplorhini • Tarsiers • New World Monkeys • Old World Monkeys • Apes: “Lesser” & “Greater” 2014 Taxonomy • The scientific naming of categories of organisms • Clusters of traits due to common ancestry • Used to di i d distinguish b d categories ( i h broader i (taxa, singular taxon) • Commonly used traits include morphology, genetics, behavior, pelage, vocalizations the fur, hair or wool of a mammal 2014 -learn to distinguish organisms -find traits you can group together that are of common ancestry -you wanna use these traits to distinguish broader categories of organisms Linnaean classification system • Carl Linnaeus, Systema Naturæ (1735) • First ranking system for classification – Animale, Lapideum, Vegetabile – Later Monera, Protista, Fungi • Structural similarities phylogenetic 2014 3 Difficulties with taxonomic classification l ifi ti 2014 1) There continue to be new primates found • Approx 361 species of primates, and a total of 630 species and subspecies overall (IUCN Primate Specialist Group 2013) 1) Continues to be new primates found: 69 primates species and subspecies—have been described since 2000 • E.g. Avahi Cleesei, aka John Cleese’s lemur Found in Western Madagascar, 2005 2014 John Cleese & ring-tailed lemur Avahi cleesei, woolly lemur -Carl Linnaeus first came up with classification KINKY kingdom PEOPLE phylum COME class OVER order FOR family GROUP genus SEX species Big-> down to something more specific • 2) Classification problems at species level (splitters: emphasize variation vs lumpers: minimize variation/ group taxa together) splitters: emphasize variation lumpers: minimize variation E.g. Cercopithecus mitis (Blue monkey) At different times all of the following subspecies have been recognized as separate species Cercopithecus mitis mitis Cercopithecus mitis elgonis Cercopithecus mitis heymansi + 4 more 3) Re classification based on new molecular data 2014 **** Alternative classification (Strier text – outdated) we are not doing the classification in Streir’s books Primates Order Suborder Prosimii Anthropoidea Lemurs Monkeys Lorises Apes Galagos Tarsiers **Classification we will learn in this class!! Strepsirhini (Memory hook: Sloppy-wet) -sensory tissues found on the outside of their skulls Primates Order Suborder Strepsirhini Lemurs Haplorhini Tarsiers Lorises Monkeys Galagos Apes Humans Wet nosed Strepsirhini and Haplorhini are based on the type of noses (olfactory) Dry nosed Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Family Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Hominidae Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Pan Homininae Homo Chart courtesy of F. Campos Cheirogaleidae Superfamily = -OIDEA Lemuriformes Daubentoniidae LemurOIDEA Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes LorisOIDEA Tarsiiformes TarsiOIDEA Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini CebOIDEA Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae CercopithecOIDEA Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla HominOIDEA Hominidae Pan 2014 Homininae Homo CheirogaleIDAE Family = -IDAE DaubentoniIDAE Lemuriformes LemurOIDEA LemurIDAE LepilemurIDAE Strepsirhini IndriIDAE LorisIDAE Lorisiformes LorisOIDEA Tarsiiformes TarsiOIDEA GalagIDAE Primates TarsiIDAE CebIDAE PitheciIDAE Platyrrhini CebOIDEA CallitrichIDAE Haplorhini AtelIDAE AotIDAE Cercopithecinae CercopithecOIDEA CercopithecIDAE Colobinae Catarrhini HylobatIDAE Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla HominOIDEA HominIDAE Pan 2014 Homininae Homo replaces the chart on page 42 CheirogaleIDAE Subfamily = -INAE for the taxonomic chart no genus or species except homininae DaubentoniIDAE Lemuriformes LemurOIDEA LemurIDAE LepilemurIDAE Strepsirhini IndriIDAE LorisIDAE Lorisiformes LorisOIDEA Tarsiiformes TarsiOIDEA GalagIDAE Primates TarsiIDAE CebIDAE PitheciIDAE Platyrrhini CebOIDEA CallitrichIDAE Haplorhini AtelIDAE AotIDAE CercopithecINAE CercopithecOIDEA CercopithecIDAE ColobINAE Catarrhini HylobatIDAE PongINAE Pongo GorillINAE Gorilla HominOIDEA HominIDAE Pan 2014 HominINAE Homo Genus species isnt a suffix to help us out between genus and species are written in italics first letter is capitalized CercopithecINAE ColobINAE PongINAE GorillINAE pygmaeus Pongo Gorilla gorilla ill troglodytes Pan HominINAE paniscus Homo sapiens Genus and species: Both should be written in italics or underlined; First letter of genus= capital letter 2014 Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Family Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Chart courtesy of F. Campos Hominidae Pan Homininae Homo Suborder Strepsirhini Strepsirhines (NOT Prosimians!) Strepsirhini Lemuriformes -Strepsirhini: not primates* -idea of having more primitive traits than other groups; can be more relatable to primitive ancestors Lorisiformes “primitive” (retained ancestral traits) Strepsirhine Distribution: Africa, Asia, Indonesia Lorrisophores- are found in Africa and Asia the Miraphores- are only found in Madagascar (lemurs) only primates found in Madagascar Strepsirhine Characteristics Distribution: only in the Old World Nocturnal (mostly) - Large eyes Greater slow loris - Tapetum (layer of cells, cause “eye shine”) Wet nose (rhinarium) - Reliance on scent marking Independently mobile ears Immobile upper lip Inexpressive face Dental formula = 2.1.3.3 2014 Mongoose lemur - only found in the old world (Africa and Asia) - new world (south america) - nocturnal (active during the night) - diurnal (active during the day) - cathemeral (active either the day or the night) - tapetum (reflective layer at back of retina to see better at night) - rhinarium (wet naked surface around your nostrils; olfactory on the outside of your skull) - mobile ears allow them to catch sounds better - immobile upper lip; they have an inexpressive face - dental: extra premolar, they also have a dental/tooth comb — ultimately used for grooming and to extract things from bark Main mode of locomotion: strepsirhine — animal uses hind limbs to move to next support, constantly clinging and leaping Vertical clinging and leaping Video: fooled by nature- leaping lemur YOUTUBE 2014 lemurforme CheirogaleIDAE DaubentoniIDAE Lemuriformes LemurOIDEA strepsirhini LemurIDAE LepilemurIDAE Strepsirhini IndriIDAE LorisIDAE Lorisiformes Tarsiiformes TarsiOIDEA lorisiformes LorisOIDEA GalagIDAE Primates TarsiIDAE CebIDAE PitheciIDAE Platyrrhini CebOIDEA CallitrichIDAE Haplorhini AtelIDAE AotIDAE Cercopithecinae CercopithecOIDEA CercopithecIDAE Colobinae Catarrhini HylobatIDAE Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla HominOIDEA HominIDAE Pan 2014 Homininae Homo Lemuriforme Characteristics: Strepsirhine Lemuriformes Lorisiformes -lemurs (ancestors) made their way over there about 40 million years ago - made their way over from rafts: their small body size prevented sinking of rafts unlike other primates Distribution: only in Madagascar Among the world’s smallest primates 5 families 2014 memory hook: Zaboomafoo is a Lemur in Madagascar Lemurs on Madagascar • Lemur ancestors thought to have gotten to Madagascar by “rafting” • Diversified to fill every niche • Survived on Madagascar but not on the African mainland, likely due to competing monkeys • Large lemurs were decimated by human hunting 2014 Megaladapis - they can conserve energy - hunching posture allows them to conserve energy as well - few predators at first: allowed more niches to be filled—caused diversity; ADAPTIVE RADIATION: when a species find itself in a new environment resulting in new species to be born -no lemurs survived on mainland continent of Africa due to competition of other monkeys -humans and Foosa were their only main predators -lemurs shriek when there is more food available — easier for humans to hunt them 2014 OIDEA - IDAE - INAE Lemuriformes Lemuridae Indriidae Ring tailed , brown, ruffed lemurs, etc. Woolly lemurs and sifakas Arboreal and terrestrial Arboreal and terrestrial Medium sized Medium to large sized primates Diurnal (most lack tapetum lucidum) Smaller tooth comb Large diversity in diet Folivorous Tend to have diverse social organizations Mostly monogamous Brown lemur Ruffed lemur Verreaux’s sifaka Woolly lemur memory hook: Madagascar king is awake during the day -monogamous- bonds of one male and one female -lemuridae and indriidae have scent glands on their wrist and they rub those scent glands on objects and tails — stink fight -many of the males and females are the same size -there are female dominant species Nocturnal Solitary Continually growing incisors (rodent like) Omnivorous (bony finger – specializes in extractive foraging) Near threatened – symbol of death Daubentoniidae: Aye aye - they have a tapetum in their eyes - gnaw on things to prevent their teeth from growing - extracting foraging - in hollows or tree cavity they can use their elongated finger to extract insects - usually hunted for cultural reasons (symbol of death) not for their meat CheirogaleIDAE DaubentoniIDAE Lemuriformes LemurOIDEA strepsiihini->lorisiformes->lorisoidea ->galagdae LemurIDAE LepilemurIDAE Strepsirhini IndriIDAE LorisIDAE Lorisiformes LorisOIDEA Tarsiiformes TarsiOIDEA GalagIDAE Primates TarsiIDAE CebIDAE PitheciIDAE Platyrrhini CebOIDEA CallitrichIDAE Haplorhini AtelIDAE AotIDAE Cercopithecinae CercopithecOIDEA CercopithecIDAE Colobinae Catarrhini Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae HylobatIDAE Gorilla HominOIDEA HominIDAE Pan 2014 Homininae Homo Characteristics of Lorisiformes: Strepsirhini Lemuriformes Lorisiformes 2 Families: Lorisidae (Loris) and Galagidae (Galago) Share a common ancestor with lemurs in the Eocene Why did some lemurs become diurnal, but no lorisiformes did? Competition on mainland Africa Lorisiformes are solitary Diet: Insects and fruit 2014 - most lorisiformes are nocturnal Lorisiforme Distribution: • Lorisidae are found in Asia (Lorises) and Africa (loris related species) • Galagidae (Galagos) are only found in Africa (Bush babies) and bush b a bie s 2014 Lorisiformes Family: Galagidae Galagos (bush babies) Distribution: Mainland Africa Arboreal and Nocturnal Vertical clingers and leapers 2014 Review: Strepsirhini divides into • Lemuriformes • Endemic to Madagascar • Lorisiformes • Africa & Asia • Large lemurs • Galagos (bushbabies) • Africa – Ring tailed lemur – Sifaka • Small lemurs – Aye aye • Loris • Africa & SE Asia Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Family Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus strepsirhini are done: we will now talk about haplorhini Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Hominidae Pan Homininae Homo Chart courtesy of F. Campos Haplorhini Tarsiiforme Platyrrhini Catarrhini 2014 Tarsiiforme Characteristics Family: Tarsiidae One living genus: Tarsius, was recently split into three Distribution: only found in SE Asia Large eyes and ears - hunt at night mainly for insects - thalamus is where the unique connection takes place: make the tarsiiforme unique to all the other monkeys - entirely carnivorous Lack tapetum lucidum Different eye brain (thalamus) connection than strepsirhines and monkeys (independent evolutionary lineage?) Elongated tarsus bone in foot – running, jumping Social system: Monogamous or one 2014 male/multi female groups -YOUTUBE: true facts about the Tarsier Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Family Daubentoniidae Lemuroidea Subfamily Genus Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Hylobatidae Gorilla Hominoidea Hominidae Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Pan Homininae Homo Chart courtesy of F. Campos Suborder: Haplorhini New World Monkeys: central america, part of mexico and south america - dry noses (mammals) like us; they do not have a rhynarium Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans All diurnal (except Tarsiers and one monkey: Owl monkey) Dry noses Less reliance on olfaction than strepsirhines Flatter faces Reduced sense of hearing (immobile ears) Mobile upper lip and highly expressive faces 2014 Cheirogaleidae Daubentoniidae Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Hominidae Pan 2014 Homininae Homo Suborder Haplorhini Haplorhini Suborder Infraorder Platyrrhini Pl t hi i Catarrhini C hi i Old World monkeys New World Monkeys Apes Humans Suborder Haplorhini Platyrrhini Catarrhini 2014 Platyrrhini 2014 Spider monkey Catarrhini Crab-eating macaque -can distinguish based on nostrils platyrrhini - side facing nostrils catarrhini - downward facing nostrils (like humans) Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Family Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus Lemuridae only going to talk about two families callitrichidae and atelidae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Hominidae Pan Homininae Homo Chart courtesy of F. Campos New World Monkeys: Distribution and traits Distribution: Mexico and Central America South america - Assumed to have rafted over to south america - Some have a prehensile tail — use their tail for grasping, like a 5th limb - compared to us they have an extra premolar All arboreal Smaller body size than OWM All have tails Atelidae has prehensile tails and some families have partial prehensile tails 2014 Dental formula 2.1.3.3 (36 teeth) Many Old World Monkeys are terrestrial. Why aren’t New World monkeys? • Greater predation pressure for a relatively small bodied radiation? • Availability of productive savannah type habitats is lower in the neotropics? 2014 - a whole wider range of animals could eat them as prey which is why they had to go into the trees -in the NWM there is less savannah-like habitats Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Family Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Hominidae Pan Homininae Homo Chart courtesy of F. Campos Callitrichidae - monogamous — one male one female relationship - polyandrous — one female mates with two or more males - dominant female will suppress ovulation of the other females; only dominant female will ovulate; through - fairmones chemical is secreted that creates a social response - good because dominant female will have more helpers to raise their offsprings (higher chance of survival) - males and females are the same size (little sexual dimorphism) - scent gland to gain territories Marmosets and Tamarins Smallest monkeys Claws instead of nails (except big toe) Monogamous and (cooperative) polyandrous groups Twins Male care of infants Little sexual dimorphism Pygmy marmoset Territorial Family Callitrichidae, cont’d… Cotton-topped 2014 tamarin Silvery marmoset Emperor tamarin Cheirogaleidae Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Family Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Hominidae Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Pan Homininae Homo Chart courtesy of F. Campos Atelidae (The OWL monkey is the only NWM that is not Diurnal) - part of the day they will break up into “sub groups” but they will come back together at night Arboreal Diurnal Prehensile tails Polygamous (multi male/multi female) Alouatta: Howler monkey Fission fusion societies Lagothrix: g Woolley monkey Brachyteles: y Muriquis Ateles: 2014 Spider monkey Cheirogaleidae Family Order Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Lemuriformes Lemuroidea Daubentoniidae Subfamily Genus Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Strepsirhini Indriidae Lorisidae Lorisiformes Lorisoidea Tarsiiformes Tarsioidea Galagidae Primates Tarsiidae Cebidae Pitheciidae Platyrrhini Ceboidea Callitrichidae Haplorhini Atelidae Aotidae Cercopithecinae Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecidae Colobinae Catarrhini Hylobatidae Ponginae Pongo Gorillinae Gorilla Hominoidea Taxonomic Chart: To2014 replace pg 42 in Strier textbook Chart courtesy of F. Campos Hominidae Pan Homininae Homo Post Test Matching: Match the primate family with their infraorder: Daubentoniidae Atelidae Lemuriformes Galagidae Lorisiformes Tarsidae Tarsiiformes Callitrichidae Platyrrhini Indriidae Types of Questions to Keep in Mind What traits distinguish a Strepsirhine from a New World Monkey? Or a New World Monkey from a Great Ape? calltrichidae Is Ceboidea a Strepsirhine? What traits distinguish a Colobinae? Is a Catarrhini primate a member of Haplorhini? I won’t ask something like: is a mantled howler monkey a Colobinae? I won’t ask species or genus level questions about the classification chart… UNLESS they are among those already listed under the family Hominidae! But I might ask something like: Does a Tarsiiforme have a prehensile tail? 2014 ...
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