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Lecture 20 - Cardiovascular System I .docx - Lecture 20 -...

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Lecture 20 - Cardiovascular System IThe Mediastinum:Boundaries:-Anteriorly: sternum and costal cartilages-Laterally: lungs-Posteriorly: bodies of thoracic vertebraeDivisions:Superior and inferior mediastina are separated by an imaginary line that goes throughthe sternal angle (anteriorly) and TIV-T intervertebral disk (posteriorly)-Superior mediastinum: containsArteries:oArch of aorta and branchesVeins:oRight and left brachiocephalic veinsoThe inferior part of SVCoProximal part of azygos veinNerves:oPhrenic nervesoVagus nervesOther content:oTracheaoEsophagusoThymus gland-Inferior Mediastinum: subdivided intoAnterior Mediastinum: containsoThymus glandMiddle Mediastinum: containsoCardiovascular system:Heart and its pericardiumAscending aortaPulmonary trunkPulmonary veinsoNerves:Phrenic nerves (L and R)oPulmonary system:Main bronchiPosterior mediastinum:oCardiovascular structures:Descending aortaAzygos veinHemiazygos veins
Right and left vagus nervesoNervous structuresSympathetic chainsSplanchnic nervesoOther structures:Thoracic ductEsophagusThe Heart-Surface anatomy:The heart quadrangle:oUpper left corner: left 2ndintercostal space, 1inch away from the midlineoUpper right corner: right 3rdcostal cartilage, 1inch away from the midlineoLower right corner: right 6thcostal cartilage, 1inch away from the midlineoLower left corner: left 5thintercostal space, 3 to 4 inches away from themidline-Pericardial sac:composed of 2 layers
Fibrous pericardium:the thick outer layer that attaches to the central tendon of thediaphragmThe serious pericardium cavity:made of 2 layers of connective tissueoThe parietal layer:outer layer- doesn’t touch your heart - lines the innersurface of the fibrous pericardiumoThe visceral layer:(aka epicardium): attaches to the surface of the heartThe pericardial cavity:the narrow space between the visceral and parietal layers ofthe serous pericardium3 major layers of the heart:-Epicardium (on top)-Myocardium (where the muscle is located)-Endocardium (surface that faces the blood)When we combine the layers together as a unit, it looks like-Fibrous pericardium (form the outer part) and fuses with the next layer which is

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left ventricle

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