4 Aqueous Reactions & Solution Stoichiometry

4 Aqueous Reactions & Solution Stoichiometry - Chapter...

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1 Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry There are 3 major categories of reaction that occur in aqueous solution. precipitation reactions acid-base reactions redox reactions 2
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2 D e f i n i t i o n s : Electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity when dissolved in water Electrolytes Nonelectrolytes All the solutes that dissolve in water fit into 2 categories: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Strong electrolytes ionize completely when dissolved in water Example: HCl, HNO 3 (nitric acid), NaOH, NaCl, KI. . Example: CH 3 COOH, HF, H 2 O, NH 3 , . . Nonelectrolytes d o n o t ionize when dissolved in water Example: CH 3 OH, CH 3 CH 2 OH, glucose. ... Na (aq) NaCl (s) H 2 O Cl (aq) + CH 3 COOH H 2 O + CH 3 COO H 4 Weak electrolytes ionize p a r t i a l l y when dissolved in water
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3 Precipitation Reactions The precipitation reaction results in the formation of an insoluble product called precipitate . Example: Lead nitrate Sodium iodide Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) 2 NaI (aq) + Lead iodide 2 NaNO 3(aq) PbI 2 + Sodium nitrate yellow precipitate See table 4.1 for solubility guidelines for common ionic compounds in water Predicting Solubility Table 4.1 All common ionic compounds with NO 3 - are water soluble All common ionic compounds of alkali metal ions are water soluble 6
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4 Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions The cation and the anion exchange partners AgNO 3 ( aq ) + KCl ( aq ) → AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq ) Example: Na 2 S ( aq ) + H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) → Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + H 2 S ( g ) This reaction gives the predicted product, but you had better carry it out in the hood, or you will be very unpopular! Molecular and Ionic Equations The molecular equation lists the reactants and products in their molecular form. Example : AgNO 3 ( aq ) + KCl ( aq ) → AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq ) In the ionic equation all strong electrolytes (strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic salts) are dissociated into their ions. Ag + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) + K + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) → AgCl( s ) + K + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) 8
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5 Net Ionic Equation To form the net ionic equation, cross out anything that does not change from the left side of the equation to the right. AgCl
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course CHEM 121 taught by Professor Wyzlouzil during the Winter '07 term at Ohio State.

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4 Aqueous Reactions & Solution Stoichiometry - Chapter...

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