7 Periodic Properties of Elements

7 Periodic Properties of Elements - Chapter 7 Periodic...

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1 Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Development of Periodic Table Elements in the same group generally have similar chemical properties. Properties are not identical, however. Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer independently came to the same conclusion about how elements should be grouped. 2
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2 Periodic Trends In this chapter, we will observe trends in h Sizes of atoms and ions. h Ionization energy. h Electron affinity. Effective Nuclear Charge • In a many-electron atom, electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons. •The nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on both factors. 4
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3 Effective Nuclear Charge The effective nuclear charge, Z eff , is found this way: Z eff = Z - S where Z is the atomic number and S is a screening constant, usually close to the number of inner electrons. Fig 7.3 Sizes of Atoms The bonding atomic radius is defined as one-half of the distance between covalently bonded nuclei. 6 Fig 7.5
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Sizes of Atoms …increase from top to bottom of a column due to increasing value of n Bonding atomic radius tends to …decrease from left to right across a row Bonding atomic radius tends to Fig 7.6 Sizes of Ions • Ionic size depends upon: – Nuclear charge. – Number of electrons. – Orbitals in which
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course CHEM 121 taught by Professor Wyzlouzil during the Winter '07 term at Ohio State.

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7 Periodic Properties of Elements - Chapter 7 Periodic...

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