Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Chapter 1 I. Classification of Matter...

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Chapter 1 I. Classification of Matter a. Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass; things we can see (pen) and can’t see (air) b. 2 principle ways to classify matter: physical state and composition (element, compound or mixture) c. 3 States of Matter: i. Solid : definite volume and shape ii. Liquid : definite volume but no definite shape iii. Gas : no fixed volume or shape II. Properties of Matter a. Chemical : can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance EX: flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, combustion b. Physical : can be observed without changing a substance into another EX: boiling point, density, mass, volume III. Properties of Matter a. Extensive : depends on how much matter is being considered EX: mass – relates to amount of substance present b. Intensive : does not depend on how much matter is being considered (not additive) – many can be used to identify substances EX: density QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. IV. Units of Measurement a. Metric System : system of units of measurement in which divisions to subunits are made by the power of 10 QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. b. SI Units

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QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. c. Temperature conversions i. K = ° C + 273 ii. ° F = 9/5 ( ° C) + 32 iii. ° C = 5/9 ( ° F - 32) V. Density a. density = mass/volume VI. Sig Figs a. 5 Rules i. Nonzero digits are always significant ii. Zeros between nonzeros are always significant iii. Zeros at beginning of number are never significant iv. Zeros at end of a number 1 that has a decimal point are always significant; ex. 1.0 Zeros at end of a number < 1: only zeros at end and in middle are significant v. Zero at end of number that contains no decimal may or may not be significant EX: 400 cm may have 1, 2 or 3 sig figs; use exponential notation to clarify: 4 x 10 2 1 sig fig 4.0 x 10 2 2 sig figs 4.00 x 10 2 3 sig figs b. Sig Figs in Calculations i. Addition and Subtraction Rule: answer has same number of decimal places as term with fewest decimal places ii. Multiplication and Division Rule: answer has same number of sig figs as are in term with fewest sig figs VII. Dimensional Analysis a. Procedure used to convert between units in solving chem problems
Chapter 2 I. Structure of an Atom a. Dalton’s theory: atom is the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. b. number of protons = number of neutrons c. an atom has no net electrical charge II. Atomic Number, Mass Number and Isotopes a. Atomic number : number of protons in nucleus b. Mass number : sum of protons and neutrons QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. c.

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Final Study Guide - Chapter 1 I. Classification of Matter...

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