Lecture 2 Macromolecules of Life

Lecture 2 Macromolecules of Life - March 27, 2008 Biology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 March 27, March 27, 2008 2008 Biology 113, Lecture 2 Biology 113, Lecture 2 • Polymers - synthesis and degradation • Carbohydrates - mono/polysaccharides • Lipids - Fats, phospholipids, and steroids Concepts: 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 Part 1 - Overview Overview A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers . A large number of different biological macromolecules can be made from only 40-50 common monomers. Classes of life’s organic molecules that are polymers: -Carbohydrates -(L ip ids) -Prote ins - Nucleic acids Most macromolecules are polymers Most macromolecules are polymers Synthesis of polymers of polymers • Monomers form larger molecules by condensation/dehydration HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 23 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2 HO 1 2 3 H HO H 1 2 3 4 H 2 O H HO Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Breakdown Breakdown of polymers of polymers • Large molecules can be degraded by hydrolysis
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Synthesis and breakdown of polymers are central to cellular metabolism Include both sugars and their polymers - Possess many -OH (hydroxyl) groups - Hydrophilic (“water-loving” and, therefore, highly soluble) Are the simplest sugars (like glucose) Used as an energy source Converted into other organic molecules Combined to synthesize polymers Mono Mono saccharides Carbohydrates serve as Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material fuel and building material Examples of Examples of monosaccharides Figure 5.3 Basic unit: CH 2 O Triose sugars Pentose sugars Hexose sugars H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH C O C O H C OH H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH C O H H H HH H H H HH H H H H C CC C O O O O Aldoses Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Ketoses Fructose
Background image of page 2
3 Linear and cyclic configurations of glucose The “aldehyde”functional group can cyclize. Hydroxyl groups } Carbonyl group Functional groups Carbon “skeleton” Linear and cyclic configurations of glucose Linear and cyclic configurations of glucose Linear glucose can cyclize The “aldehyde”functional group can cyclize. Figure 5.7 Di saccharides saccharides Two monosaccharides linked by: - condensation of two sugars -a linkage called glycosidic bond Example: Sucrose (table sugar) (Glucose) + (Fructose)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Large polymers with many linked monosaccharides (up to thousands) Examples: Starch (energy storage in plants) Glycogen (energy storage in animals) Cellulose (used for structure in plants) Poly Poly saccharides saccharides Starch and cellulose Starch and cellulose …… …… .
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 16

Lecture 2 Macromolecules of Life - March 27, 2008 Biology...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online