Chapter Outlines

Chapter Outlines - Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology I THE...

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Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology I. THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW II. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. A. Subfields of Psychology There are hundreds of topics available for the study of behavior and mental processes. Clusters of these topics are called subfields. 1. The biological factors underlying our behavior are the concern of biological or physiological psychologists. How genetics, brain structures, and hormones affect our behavior are topics addressed by biological psychologists. 2. Developmental psychologists explore the causes and effects of changes in behavior and mental processes over the life span. Developmental psychologists study children’s friendships, parenting styles and outcomes, and changes in thinking abilities. 3. Cognitive psychologists study processes underlying perception, motivation, emotion, memory, problem solving, and other aspects of human thought. Engineering psychologists study human factors in the use of equipment, and work to design better versions of that equipment. 4. Personality psychologists study the qualities that make people unique and explore relationships among personality characteristics, behavior, and mental processes. 5. Clinical and counseling psychologists seek to understand the origins of behavior disorders and to help people deal with disorders. Community psychologists provide psychological services to people who often do not seek help and work to prevent disorders by trying to lessen stresses such as poverty. Health psychologists study the relation between behavior and health and work to promote healthy lifestyles. 6. Educational psychologists investigate ways to improve student learning. School psychologists assess students’ abilities and provide assistance when needed. 7. Social psychologists focus on how people affect others’ behavior and thinking. Social psychologists are interested in such subjects as advertising, prejudice, and interpersonal attraction. 8. Industrial-organizational psychologists are interested in factors affecting work productivity, such as leadership styles. 9. Quantitative psychologists are interested in developing and using statistical tools to analyze data relevant to human behavior and mental process. 10. Other subfields include sport psychology , forensic psychology , and environmental psychology . Many psychologists are interested in several psychological subfields and may use more than one approach to study behavior and mental processes. Psychological research contributes to other disciplines such as neuroscience and uses theories from other disciplines (for example, math and physics) to understand psychological phenomena. B. Research: The Foundation of Psychology Psychologists use empirical research to collect and analyze information, rather than relying on speculation. C. A Brief History of Psychology
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor H during the Spring '07 term at Ohio State.

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Chapter Outlines - Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology I THE...

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