Hand-out%201

# Hand-out%201 - Scales of observation Nominal scale Ordinal...

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Questions of terminology: Statistical and Non-statistical wordings Biological (non-statistical) sample Biological (non-statistical) population Individual Group Population (non-statistical sense) Individual observation = value (numerical or not) taken by a variable observed on an individual Statistical sample of size n = n individual observations, also called ‘sample data’ = n values taken by a variable observed on n individuals Summary diagram For a given (random) variable 1 individual 1 individual observation Group of n individuals n individual observations (statistical sample) Population of N individuals N individual observations (N >= n) (statistical population)

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Two main types of random variables: . qualitative (characters) . quantitative
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Unformatted text preview: Scales of observation Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale All what one can do There is an order: In the absence of There is a true with the observations alphabetical or a true zero point, zero point and is to ‘name’ them numerical, so that data can be positive ratios do make the observations and negative, or are sense. Example: can be ranked strictly positive, so . symbols that ratios do not Examples: ‘+’, ‘-’, ‘\$’, ‘&’ Examples: make sense . temperature in . plant vigor, from Kelvin degrees ‘weak’ to ‘strong’; Examples: . tree-ring width . numerical codes, . temperature in (missing ring = such as 032, 134, etc. Celsius degrees ring with zero . I Q w i d t h )...
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