Neurons and the Brain

Neurons and the Brain - Neurons and the brain "What...

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1 Neurons and the brain “Oh, Lisa, you and your stories: Bart's a vampire, beer kills brain cells. Now let's go back to that. .. building. .. thingie. .. where our beds and TV. .. is.” Homer J. Simpson “What one neuron tells another neuron is simply how much it is excited” Francis Crick, The Astonishing Hypothesis, 1994 Outline Neurons Neurotransmitters and behavior The brain What are neurons? • Basic units of the nervous system • Specialized for communication Video: Neural impulse
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2 Basic structure of a neuron Diversity of neurons Bipolar cell of retina Purkinje cell of cerebellum Types of neurons • Sensory neurons (body ! nervous system) • Motor neurons (nervous system ! body) • Interneurons (connectors)
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3 Types of neurons How do neurons work? • Neuron’s beginning state • Resting membrane potential • Difference in voltage between the inside and outside of the neuron • -70 mV • hyperpolarized • Bow-and-arrow analogy Why is it negative? • Sodium ions (Na+) and Potassium ions (K+), duh • Inside is negatively charged relative to outside • -70 mV K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ K+ Na+ Cl- Cl-
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Why is it negative? • Sodium ions (Na+) and Potassium ions (K+), duh • Inside is negatively charged relative to outside • -70 mV + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - The action potential • Stimulation from other neurons can lead to neuronal firing • This is known as the
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Neurons and the Brain - Neurons and the brain "What...

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