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Chapter 5 Summary

Chapter 5 Summary - Chan-mi Chun Chapter 5 Perception and...

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Chan-mi Chun Chapter 5 – Perception and Individual Decision Making 1. Perception A. Process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. B. Factors – perceiver/target/situation 2. Attribution Theory A. Internal cause – behaviors under the personal control of the individual B. External cause – resulting from outside causes (ex. Car accident) C. Distinctiveness – whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. (if it’s unusual, then it’s external. Via versa D. Consensus – everyone faces a similar situation responds in the same way (if the consensus is high, then it’s likely to be external) E. Consistency – does the person respond the same way over time? (high consistency, more internal) 3. Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. 4. Self-serving bias – the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others 1. Selective Perception A. Selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes. 2. Halo Effect A. Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic – it could be extreme. 3. Contrast Effects A. Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. 4. Projections A. Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. (you assume others are same as you) 5. Stereotyping A. Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. 1
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Chan-mi Chun Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations 1. Employment Interview 2. Performance Expectations A. Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect) – individual’s behavior is determined by other people’s expectations. 3. Ethnic Profiling A. Profiling- a form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out (typically on the basis of race/ethnicity) for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing or investigation.
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Chapter 5 Summary - Chan-mi Chun Chapter 5 Perception and...

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