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Lecture_Notes - Lecture Notes 1990s London KE Family none...

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Lecture Notes: - 1990s: London – KE Family – none could speak, read, write, distinguish words o Result: one gene that made language possible—FOXP2 - 200,000-20,000 years ago = first communication - Otto Jespersen: 5 theories—none convincing o Ex: “bow-wow” speech imitates nature - “Everything communicates” – Jaques Tati o signs around since beginning of humanity - Semiotics: Study of signs and codes - Signified = concept that signifier conjures in mind—mental image - Arbitrary = accidental, unintentional o Language doesn’t imitate nature i.e. “tree” doesn’t look like a tree - If signs don’t come from nature, they must come from culture o Value depends on context in a system - Ferdinand de Sassure: understand basic structures, origins, elements of language o 1. Sign = signifier + signified o 2. Relationship between them is arbitrary o 3. Signs have value only in relation to a system/part of a code - “the sound image” – process by which our brain recognizes sound - Langue = structure, system, code, order - Parole = individual speech act, actual words used - Immutability = inherited, part of an environment, doen’t change overnight - Mutability = new words, slang, ways of expression/speaking change - Communication is TRANSFORMED, TRANSMITTED, TRANSPORTED by media - Marshall McLuhan: doesn’t care about signs o “the medium is the message” o Sassure=abstract, McLuhan=concrete - Paleolithic Era: 2.5 mil to 10,000 years ago o Earliest/largest area of cultural development o Tools: used stone, smaller, have uses - Tools vs Words: o Tools, like words represent, can be metaphoric o Words are tools – speech development - Alta Mira (1868): lifesize figures of about 25 animals - Lascaux: 30,000 BC France o 70 different paintings of animals in motion - Cave Paintings : o Why?: 1. Existence of successful hunting community 2. Favorable environment – leisure time 3. Must be a function o Soc Functions Ritual
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Dances Ceremonial pedagogy
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