Chapter 14FamiliesStudy GuideI. Family ProcessesA. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory provides a framework for studying family processes by analyzing social contexts of development in five environmental systems. What are they? 1. Microsystem: setting in which individual lives (family, peers, school, etc.)2. Mesosystem: links between microsystems (like family and peers)3. Exosystem: influences from another setting that the individual does not experience directly (parents’ work experience affecting parenting at home)4. Macrosystem: culture in which the individual lives (nation or ethnic group)5. Chronosystem or sociohistorical circumstances: increased number of working mothers, divorced parents, and stepparent familiesB. Interactions in the family system1. Each family is a systemmade up of interrelated and interacting parts.2. Interactions take different forms, e.g., mutual synchronyand reciprocity.3. Examples of synchronya) Mutual gaze or eye contactb) Scaffoldingi.e., adjusting level of guidance to fit the child.c) Caregiver games 4. Reciprocal socialization is bidirectional socialization.5. The family is a constellation of subsystems and each person participates in several subsystems that interact and influence each other.a) Dyadicsubsystems involve two people.b) Polyadicsubsystems involve more than two people.C. Cognition and emotion are important in understanding family processes.1. Parents’ cognition, beliefs, and values about their parental role are important in the socialization process.2. Children’s social competence is linked to emotional lives of their parents.3. Parental sensitivity of children’s emotions supports their ability to manage emotions. 4. Emotion-coaching parentsmonitor their children’s emotions, view negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist in labeling emotions, and coach how to deal effectively with emotions. 5. Emotion-dismissing parents view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions. D. Multiple Developmental Trajectory1. Adults follow one trajectory and children and adolescents follow another one.2. Adult trajectories include timing of entry into marriage, cohabitation, or parenthood.3. Child trajectories include timing of child-care and entry into middle school.E. Sociocultural and historical changes 1. Subtle changesin our culture that influence families were described by Mead as including longevity of adults, urban and suburban migration, technological advancements, and general restlessness.