01_Orientation

01_Orientation - ORIENATION ORIENTATION TO THE TOEFL® isr...

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Unformatted text preview: ORIENATION ORIENTATION TO THE TOEFL® isr ’ The TOEFL® iBT tests your ability to understand and use English for academic pL'irposes. There are four sections on the TOEFL, with special directions for each section. HEAOING SECTION The Reading section tests your ability to understand reading passages, like those in college textbooks. There are three passages on the short-format and five passages on the long format. After each passage, you will answer 12—14 questions about it. ' LISTENING SECTION The Listening section tests your ability to understand spoken English that is typical of interac— tions and academic speech on college campuses. During the test, you will listen to conversa- tions and lectures and answer questions about them. There are two conversations and four lectures on the short format and three conversations and six lectures on the long format. SPEAKING SECTION The Speaking section tests your ability to communicate in English in an academic setting. During the test,.you will be presented with six speaking questions. The questions ask for a response to a single question, a conversation, a talk, or ‘a lecture. WRITING SECTION The-Writing section tests your ability to write essays in English similar to those that you would write in college courses. During the test. you will write one essay about an academic topic and one essay about a familiar topic. 2 _ ORIENTATION TO THE STUDENT: HOW TO USE THIS BOOK TO SUOOEEU A STUDY PLAH Many students do not prepare for the TOEFL before they take the exam. They do not even read the TOEFL® iBT Information and Registration Bulletin when they register. You have an advan- tage. Using this book, you have a study plan for success. STEPS TO SUOOESS This book is easy to use. More than one million Barron’s students have succeeded on the TOEFL. You can be successful too, by following twelve steps. ' > 1. Inform yourself about the test. Read the answers to “FAQs—Frequently Asked Questions About the TOEFL® iBT” in this chapter. Then, if you cannot find a copy locally. visit the TOEFL web site at wwwets.org/toefi to download a copy of the TOEFL information and Registration Bulletin. Research demonstrates ' that students who know what to expect will perform better on an examination. > 2. Invest time in your study plan. Be, realistic about how much time you need to prepare for the TOEFL. Choose a syllabus from the choices in this chapter. Use distributed practice—two hours every day for two months will give you better results than twelve hours every day for ten days, even though you will be study- ing 120 hours for both schedules. > 3. Develop study habits. The study habits explained at the end of this chapter will help you succeed on the TOEFL and after the TOEFL when you are admitted to a college or university, or when you continue your professional training to keep your licenses current. Successful students understand the value of these habits. ‘ > 4. Evaluate your strengths and weaknesses. Take. the Pretest, Model Test 1 in Chapter 4 and check your answers using the Explanatory or Example Answers and Audio Scripts for Model Tests in Chapter 5. Which sections of the TOEFL were easier for you? Which were more difficult? Plan to spend more time on the sec- - tions on which you received lower scores. ~ > 5. Master academic skills. Chapter 3 contains a summary of the academic skills that you will need to complete the tasks on the TOEFL® iBT. Read the strategies, complete the practice activities, and check your 7 answers. By going systematically through this chapter, you will acquire valuable academic skills. Take your time and learn them well. TO THE STUDENT: HOW TO USE THIS BOOK TO SUCCEED > 6. Check your progress. Progress Test, Modei Test 2 in Chapter 4 and check your answers using the Explanatory or Example Answers in Chapter 5. You should begin to see how the academic skills are used on the new TOEFL® iBT. > 7. Improve English proficiency. Chapter 2 will show you how your English proficiency is tested on the TOEFL. Review impor- tant language problems and identify strategies for the language skill that corresponds to each section—Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing. Take the quizzes and check your answers. Although you need to know more English than it is possible to include in one chapter, _ this review will help you apply the English you know to the test situation. You will improve your English proficiency as measured by the TOEFL. ' > 8. Understand the directions. Take the time to read and understand the directions for each problem in Chapter 2 and each section on the model tests. If you already understand what to do in order to complete a certain type of question, you will not have tospend as much valuable time reading and analyzing the ‘ directions when you take the official TOEFL. > 9. Practice taking model tests. Students who have an opportunity to take at least one model test will almost always increase their scores significantly on the official TOEFL test. Experience is a great- teacher. This book provides you with seven model tests for practice. In order to take advantage of the experience, you should always follow the test directions carefully and time each section. Take each model test without stopping for a break until you finish the Reading and Listening sections. Then take a five-minute break and work without stopping until you complete the Speaking and Writing sections. By simulating the test conditions, you will become familiar with the way that it feels to take the TOEFL and you will be able to concentrate on the questions instead of trying to figure out what is going to happen next. You will also learn to pace yourself so that you can finish each section within the time limits. Remember, you should not try to memorize the questions on the model tests. You will find similar questions on the official TOEFL, but you will not find. exactly the same questions. Try to improve your skills, not your memory. > 10. Estimate your TIJEFL score. Chapter 6 gives you a method for estimating your TOEFL score from scores on the model tests in this book. If you do not have a' teacher or a reliable grader to evaluate your speaking and writing sections, you may want to consider using one of the services listed at the end of the chapter. You need to know how your speaking and writing will factor into the total score. 3 4 ORIENTATION > 11. Maintain a positive attitude. Throughout the book, you will find advice for staying positive and motivated. Most of it can be found under the heading “Adviser’s Office." Take the time to read the suggestions and think about them. Other successful students have benefited from the same advice. > 12. Take the test when you are ready. Some students try to succeed on the TOEFL before they are ready. Be realistic about your study schedule. If you are not scoring very well on the model tests and the estimates of your TOEFL scores are below the minimum for you to achieve your goal, you should reconsider your registration date. Knowing when to take the test is part of a successful study plan. if you give yourself the time you need and if you follow the study plan using this book, you will reach your goal. in the future, ydu will not be asked whether you took the TOEFL a month earlier or later but you will be asked to produce the required score. You can do it! Take the test when you are ready. ‘ TO THE TEAOHER: RECOMMENDATIONS AND RESOURCES PERSPEOTIVES In the Middle Ages, _a man approached two stonemasons and asked them what they were doing. The first stonemason replied, “I am laying stones.” The other answered, “I am building a cathedral." , ' I have been teaching TOEFL preparation classes since 1970 and writing TOEFL materials since 1975. As I go into my classes, | ask myself: Am I teaching TOEFL prep or am i helping stu- dents achieve their career goals? As l prepare each new edition of mybooks, | ask myself: Am I writing TOEFL preparation books or am I making tools that will help students succeed on the TOEFL and afterthe TOEFL? it is a very different perspective and inspires in a different way. Certainly, we have seen many changes in the TOEFL across the decades. Often Educa- tional Testing Service has revised the TOEFL in an effort to keep pace with changes in our ESL/EFL teaching paradigms, and occasionally the revisions in the TOEFL have produced changes in our teaching paradigms in something referred to as a washback effect. This is probably the most challenging time in TOEFL preparation that l have experienced because the Internet-Based TOEFL (iBT) is more than a revision. it is a completely different kind of test, which requires a new approach to learning. Our students will have to demonstrate their ability to integrate the language skills by completing tasks similar to those that they will be expected to accomplish in academic settings. They will have to speak and write at high levels of proficiency. Eventually, I believe that the changes on the TOEFL® iBT will be beneficial for our students and for us, their teachers. During the initial transition period, howeVer, it could be difiicult to plan appropriate lessons and adjust our teaching styles. TO THE TEACHER: RECOMMENDATIONS AND RESOURCES TEACHING TIPS These ideas work for me. i invite you to try some of them in your classes. > 1. Begin with a positive meSsage. It can be very simple. For instance, “The highest tower is built one brick at a time.” If you put a new message in the same place every time—on a slide or on the board—students will learn to look for it when they come into the room. Music serves the same purpose. It sets a positive mood for the session. > 2. Write three important goals for the class so that students can see them. Three goals 'are manageable for one class session. When they are visible, they keep us all on track. At the end of the class, referring to the goals gives everyone a sense of progress and clo- sure for‘the day. ‘ ' > 3. Arrange for model tests to be taken in a lab or at home on the. honor system. ' Your time with students is too valuable for you to spend four hours proctoring each model test. That would add up to twenty-eight hours of class time for all of the model tests in this book. > . 4. Allow students to grade the Reading and listening sections of their model tests. ' If students take responsibility for grading the objective sections of their model tests, and for referring to the explanatory answers, you will save hours that you would have had to use doing routine clerical tasks. if the-students take the model tests on the computer, the scoring for these sections will be done automatically; if they are using the book, the answer key is printed in Chapter 7. This will afford you the time you need to concentrate on_answering questions. ___> 5. Ask students to Write their questions on note cards and bring them. to class. x \ When students refer to the explanatory answers, many questions are resolved for them without askingthe teacher. If students write down their questions, sometimes the answer becomes apparent‘to them at this stage. The questions that they bring to class are really worth discus- sion. If you have them on cards, you can prepare your answers for the question-and-answer session at the beginning of the next class. You always have the answer! > 6. When several students have the same question. prepare a short presentation. When the question is repeated, it gives us an indication of what our students need to know. By using their questions for class preparation, we show that we are teaching people, not subjects. 5 6 ORIENTATION )» 7. Make slides at test questions and show the students how you choose an answer. Let the students “listen in" on your thought processes as you decide why answers are incorrect and which answer choice is correct. Use the explanatory answers in the book to help you. For example, you might say, "I know that A is not correct because the professor did not include this research in his lecture. Choice B looks possible, but it is not complete. The choice leaves out the second part of the answer. That means it must be either Choice 0 or D. I know that D is not correct because the professor said that there were three types, not two. It must be Choice 0.” Modeling how to think helps students learn to think when they see similar test items. > 8. Ilse class time to teach and practice academic skills. Make slides of material from Chapter 3 and go over it in class. Take the quizzes in class, using "Think, Answer, Compare, Discuss.” Students have time to think and respond to each answer independently, and then they compare their answers to the correct answer and discuss why that choice is a good one. ' > 9. Focus on speaking and writing in class. Provide many good models of responses to speaking and writing questions in class. Show stu— dents how to use the checklists to evaluate speaking and writing. > 1|]. Assign speaking tasks and writing tasks as homework. Have students turn in speaking assignments and essays. if you have voice mail and choose to use it for homework assignments, students can phone you and leave a one-minute response to a speaking task. Spend grading time on these important sections. Bring samples of good work to class—good organization, good openings, good support statements, good closings. Catch your students doing something good and use it as an example. ' > 11. Don’t worry about covering all the material in the book. This book— has more material than most teachers need for a course, but all of it was written for #5?" self-study as well as for classroom instruction. That means that students can work on their ow. for “extra credit," and all of the pages don‘t have to be referred to in class. In my experierfie, when we teachers try to cover too much, we are the only ones who can keep up. The material gets covered, but the students don't understand it. i trust that teachers know which pages to select for the students in our classes. SYLLABUS OPTIONS > 12. Provide counseling and encouragement as part of the class routine. Ideally, one minute at the end of class can be used for a pep talk, a cheer, or a success story about a former student. This is one of my favorite cheers: T-O-E-F—L. We’re making progress. We’re doing well. T-O-E-F-L. I also like to stand by a poster at the door when students are leav- ing my class. The last thing they see is the affirmation on the poster: “i know more today than I did yesterday. I am preparing. I will succeed." Some students want a handshake, a high five, or a hug. Others just smile and say good-bye. Some hang by the door, and I know that they need to talk. Every excellent TOEFL prep teacher I know is also a _very good counselor. You proba- bly are, too. ' RESOURCES Several resources for teachers are listed in Chapter 7. Four syllabus options are listed in the next section. it is also worthwhile to read the “Steps to Success” for students printed on the previous pages. The most frequently asked questions (FAQs) are answered at the end of this chapter. If I can be of help to you or your students, please contact me by visiting my web site at wwmteflprepcom. SYLLABUS OPTIONS A syllabus is a “study plan." There are four options from which to choose. The estimated number of hours for each option is the minimum time that is required to complete the plan. The Standard Syllabus requires 16 weeks and 80 hours of your time. It is the best option becaUse it allows you to study about 5 hours each week, and you can build in some review if you need it. 1 ) The Accelerated Syllabus also requires 80 hours, but it is possible to complete it in half the number of weeks by making a commitment to studying about ten hours each week. Accel- erated means “fast.” This calendar does not include time for review. The Abbreviated Syllabus should be chosen only When you cannot find the time in your schedule to follow one of the other calendars. Abbreviated means "shorter." This calendar does not allow you to complete all the study materials in the book. A concise version of this book, Barron’s Pass Key to the TOEFL, 7th Edition, contains only the material in the abbreviated syl- labus. - . The Individualized Syllabus is often chosen when you have already taken the TOEFL and you are very sure which sections will be most difficult for you when you take it again. This calendar allows you to concentrate on one or two sections without repeating information that you have already mastered on other sections. ' 7 B ORIENTATION Week 1 0301-me ODN 10 11-- 12 13 14 15 16 Standard Syllabus —' 15 Weeks/80 Hours Topic Orientation Orientation to the TOEFL® iBT How to Use This Book to Succeed Study Habits Frequently Asked Questions Model Test 1: Pretest—With Explanatory Answers Review of TOEFL Sections— With Quizzes and Glossaries Reading Listening Speaking Writing Model Test 2: Progress Test—With Explanatory - Answers Academic Skills—With Activities Taking Notes 'Paraphrasing Summarizing Synthesizing Model Tests—With Explanatory Answers Model Test 3: Progress Test Model Test 4: Progress Test Model Test 55 Progress Test Model Test 6: Progress Test Model Test 7: Progress Test Model Test 8: CD-ROM Test lhdividuatized Review ,- Reference Chapter Chapter 1 Chapters 4, 5 Chapter 2 Chapters 4. 5 Chapter 3 Chapters 4, 5 Class Hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours Shows 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours . 5 hours 5 hours 5 hours Accelerated Syllabus —: 81Weeksl80 Hours syttABgeeiinONS Reference Week Topic Chapter Class Hours 1 Orientation Chapter 1 5 hours Orientation to the TOEFL® iBT How to Use This Book to Succeed Study Habits Frequently Asked Questions Model Test 1: Protest—With Explanatory Answers Chapters 5 2 Review of TOEFL Sections—With Quizzes and Glossaries ” 1 Chapter 2 Reading Listening Speaking 10 hours Writing 3 Model Test 2: Progress Test—With Explanatory. . _ Answers Chapters 4, 5 10 hours Academic Skills—With Activities Chapter 3 4 Taking Notes 10 hours Paraphrasing 5 ' Summarizing 10 hours Synthesizing ' 6 ' Model Tests—With. Explanatory Answers Chapters 4, 5 Model Test 3—Progress Test 10 hours Model Test 4%Progress Test I 7 Model Test 5—Progress Test 10 hours Model Test 6—Progress Test ‘ a 8 Model Test 7-——Progres‘s Test ‘ 15 hours Model Test 8: CD-ROM Test Individualized Review 9 10 ORIENTATION Abbreviated Syllabus — 4 Weeks/5!]. Hours . Reference Week Topic Chapter Class Hours 1 Orientation Chapter 1 4 hours Orientation to the TOEFL® iBT Frequently Asked Questions Model Test 1: Pretest—With Explanatory Answers Chapters 4, 5 ‘ Review of TOEFL Sections—Read Only Quizzes - and Glossaries ‘ Chapter 2 Reading 2 hours _ “Listening 2 hours 'r Speaking 2 hours Writing - 2 hours 2 ' ' Model Test 2:'Progress Test—With Explanatory Answers Chapters 4, 5 5 hours Academic Skills—Read Only Chapter 3 Taking Notes 2 hours Paraphrasing 2 hours Summarizing 2 hours Synthesizing 2 hours 3 Model Tests—With Explanatory Answers Chapters 4, 5 Model Test 3—Go on to Model Test 4 0 hours Model Test 4-—Progress Test 5 hours Model Test 5—Progress Test 5 hours - 4 Model Test 6—Progress Test 5 hours Model Test 7—Progress Test 5 hours , ‘Model Test 8: CD-ROM Test 5 hours Individualized Review Individualized Syllabus '— Variable Weekslflours Reference Week Topic Chapter '1 ' Orientation Chapter 1 Frequently Asked Questions _ Model Test 1: Pretest Chapters 4, 5 2 Group and Individual Assignments Ciass Hours . 4 hours As needed Barron's TOEFL® iB'i', 13th Edition, is designed to support self-study. After analyzing the ‘ Pretest, the teacher can assign individualized review by selecting the chapters and pages that focus on the-most challenging sections of the test for each student. It is often helpful to divide the class into groups of students who have similar Patterns of error‘on the Pretest. Mo...
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