Chem 2 Project 3 Lab Report - Kidney Stones Analysis with...

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Kidney Stones Analysis with Home Remedies Ho-Chien Tsai U53225775 11/5/2015 CHM2046L TA Anisul
Introduction When substances that are normally found in urine get highly concentrated, they form into solid substances inside kidneys (1). These solid materials are what is called kidney stone. Kidney stones form when certain chemicals such as calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus becomes too concentrated in urine, in which the substances bond with each other to form solid substances (1). While smaller sizes of these kidney stones may pass through urinary tract with little to no pain, larger sizes or amount formed in kidneys may block the urinal tract causing intense pain (2). Recent studies shown that astronauts are likely to have an increased risk of developing kidney stones. Astronauts often experience space flights with little gravity force, making their bones to have an unusual loss of calcium. Along with loss of calcium, decreased fluid intake may also promote the formation of kidney stones (3). The formation of kidney stones has been around for ages, and many people have sought different ways to treat this disorder. One of the earliest recording of kidney stones were around 3200 to 1200 BC, so as the earliest methods of treatment to the disorder. In ancient India, consumption of milk, clarified butter, and alkalis were ways to treatment kidney stones (4). In modern days, there are still home remedies that promote the treatment of kidney stones. Many include drinking apple cider vinegar, carbonated drinks, lime juice, etc. Thus, this experiment not only conducted the development and formation of different types of kidney stones, but it also examined the solubility of these kidney stones in some of the home remedies, as a way to test their effectiveness in dissolving kidney stones.
Methods There were three types of kidney stones that were being formed: Calcium Oxalate, Calcium Phosphate, and Struvite. Each kidney stones were to be obtained around 5 grams. The amount of chemicals needed are magnified to 1.5 times the calculated amount to account for experimental loss. Formation of Calcium Oxalate CaC l 2 + N a 2 C 2 O 4 →Ca C 2 O 4 + 2 NaC Amount of CaC l 2 needed : 5 gCa C 2 O 4 × 1 mol 128.097 g CaC 2 O 4 × 1 molCaC l 2 1 molCaC 2 O 4 × 147.01 g / mol 1 mol CaC l 2 = 6.5 g 6.5 1.5 = 8.6 g Amount of N a 2 C 2 O 4 needed : 5 gCa C 2 O 4 × 1 mol 128.097 g CaC 2 O 4 × 1 mol N a 2 C 2 O 4 1 molCaC 2 O 4 × 134.00 g / mol 1 mol N a 2 C 2 O 4 = 5.23 g 5.23 1.5 = 7.8 g After the calculation, 8.6 g of CaCl 2 were being dissolved into 30 ml of distilled water, and the solution was stirred until it was fully saturated. A heater was used to speed of the dissolving process. In another beaker, mix 7.8 g of Na 2 C 2 O 4 with 30 ml of distilled water and stirred the solution until fully saturated. Then both the solution were thoroughly mixed, and was poured evenly into 6 centrifugal tubes until each reached 12 ml mark. The tubes were then placed into the centrifuge and was set for 20 minutes. After the centrifuge, the tubes were decanted by pouring out the water on top. The solids at the bottom from all 6 tubes were all scooped out onto

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