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Kidney Stones Analysis with Home RemediesHo-Chien TsaiU5322577511/5/2015CHM2046LTA Anisul
IntroductionWhen substances that are normally found in urine get highly concentrated, they form intosolid substances inside kidneys (1). These solid materials are what is called kidney stone. Kidneystones form when certain chemicals such as calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus becomes too concentrated in urine, in which the substances bond with each other to form solid substances (1). While smaller sizes of these kidney stones may pass through urinary tract with little to no pain, larger sizes or amount formed in kidneys may block the urinal tract causing intense pain (2).Recent studies shown that astronauts are likely to have an increased risk of developing kidney stones. Astronauts often experience space flights with little gravity force, making their bones to have an unusual loss of calcium. Along with loss of calcium, decreased fluid intake mayalso promote the formation of kidney stones (3).The formation of kidney stones has been around for ages, and many people have sought different ways to treat this disorder. One of the earliest recording of kidney stones were around 3200 to 1200 BC, so as the earliest methods of treatment to the disorder. In ancient India, consumption of milk, clarified butter, and alkalis were ways to treatment kidney stones (4). In modern days, there are still home remedies that promote the treatment of kidney stones. Many include drinking apple cider vinegar, carbonated drinks, lime juice, etc.Thus, this experiment not only conducted the development and formation of different types of kidney stones, but it also examined the solubility of these kidney stones in some of the home remedies, as a way to test their effectiveness in dissolving kidney stones.
MethodsThere were three types of kidney stones that were being formed: Calcium Oxalate, Calcium Phosphate, and Struvite. Each kidney stones were to be obtained around 5 grams. The amount of chemicals needed are magnified to 1.5 times the calculated amount to account for experimental loss.Formation of Calcium OxalateCaC l2+N a2C2O4→Ca C2O4+2NaCAmount of CaC l2needed:5gCa C2O4×1mol128.097gCaC2O4×1molCaC l21molCaC2O4×147.01g/mol1molCaC l2=6.5g6.5g×1.5=8.6gAmount of N a2C2O4needed:5gCa C2O4×1mol128.097gCaC2O4×1mol N a2C2O41molCaC2O4×134.00g/mol1molN a2C2O4=5.23g5.23g×1.5=7.8gAfter the calculation, 8.6 g of CaCl2 were being dissolved into 30 ml of distilled water, and the solution was stirred until it was fully saturated. A heater was used to speed of the dissolving process. In another beaker, mix 7.8 g of Na2C2O4with 30 ml of distilled water and stirred the solution until fully saturated. Then both the solution were thoroughly mixed, and was poured evenly into 6 centrifugal tubes until each reached 12 ml mark. The tubes were then placedinto the centrifuge and was set for 20 minutes. After the centrifuge, the tubes were decanted by pouring out the water on top. The solids at the bottom from all 6 tubes were all scooped out onto