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psych notes - Study Guide: Exam 2 Things to know for...

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Things to know for Learning: Classical Conditioning: Basic principle – learned association between two stimuli Definitions of Unconditioned Stimulus (US) naturally , Conditioned Stimulus (CS) previously neutral then learning to associate w/ something , Unconditioned Response (UR) involuntary response , Conditioned Response (CR) taught association . Be aware that UR and CR are not always the same behavior (popping balloon example – when conditioned to respond to the prospect of a balloon popping, the UR is jumping at the sound of the balloon, the CR is tensing to avoid jumping). Know extinction: the loss of a habit , spontaneous recovery: behavior comes back even though we think it’s extinct(not do anything to trigger it for awhile) , generalization: , and discrimination: responding only to on particular thing . Know the need for a relation ship between US and CS, i.e. the study of rats looking at flavor/shock and flavor/nausea pairings and light/shock and light/nausea pairings.(Conditioned Taste Aversion : Resistant to extinction) Be aware of ways classical conditioning is applied in everyday life. ex. phobias Operant Conditioning: Thorndike’s Law of Effect behavior w/ favorable consequences is repeated behavior w/out favorable consequences goes away Operant Conditioning Terms: o Reinforcer, both primary inherently reinforcing (ex food/praise) and secondary neutral by itself, but through association w/ primary reinforcement is reinforcing o Shaping rewarding successive approximations (keep adding small behaviors that will add up to change a bigger behavior) o Consequences 1. Positive reinforcement adding something good 2. Negative reinforcement removing/take away something unpleasant 3. Positive punishment adding something you didn’t have to before 4. Negative punishment removing/taking away something good Be sure to fully understand the different types of reinforcement and punishment and be able to either give examples or recognize examples when given. Reinforcement schedules
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Rose during the Fall '07 term at IUP.

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psych notes - Study Guide: Exam 2 Things to know for...

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