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Chapter 1Carbon Compounds and Chemical Bonds
Chapter 12IntroductionOrganic ChemistryThe chemistry of the compounds of carbonThe human body is largely composed of organic compoundsOrganic chemistry plays a central role in medicine, bioengineering etc.VitalismIt was originally thought organic compounds could be made only byliving things by intervention of avital forceFredrich Wöhler disproved vitalism in 1828 by making the organiccompound urea from the inorganic salt ammonium cyanate byevaporation:
Chapter 13Structural TheoryCentral PremisesValency: atoms in organic compounds form a fixed number of bondsCarbon can form one or more bonds to other carbons
Chapter 14IsomersIn drawing a Lewis structure for a molecule with several atoms,sometimes more than one arrangement of atoms is possible fora given molecular formula.Example:Both are valid Lewis structures and both molecules exist.These two compounds are called isomers.Isomers are different molecules having the same molecularformula.Structure and Bonding
Chapter 15Three Dimensional Shape of MoleculesVirtually all molecules possess a 3-dimensional shape which is oftennot accurately represented by drawingsIt was proposed in 1874 byvant Hoff and le Bel that the four bondsaround carbon were not all in a planebut rather in a tetrahedralarrangementi.e. the four C-H bonds point towards the corners of aregular tetrahedron
Chapter 16Review of BondingBonding is the joining of two atoms in a stablearrangement.Through bonding, atoms attain a complete outer shell ofvalence electrons.Through bonding, atoms attain a stable noble gasconfiguration.Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons from oneelement to another.Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electronsbetween two nuclei.Structure and Bonding
Chapter 17Ionic BondsWhen ionic bonds are formed atoms gain or lose electrons to achievethe electronic configuration of the nearest noble gasIn the process the atoms become ionicThe resulting oppositely charged ions attract and form ionic bondsThis generally happens between atoms of widely differentelectronegativitiesExampleLithium loses an electron (to have the configuration of helium) and becomes positivelychargedFluoride gains an electron (to have the configuration of neon) and becomes negativelychargedThe positively charged lithium and the negatively charged fluoride form a strong ionicbond (actually in a crystalline lattice)Li.-e-Li+F:::.+e-F::::-Li+F-lithium fluoride
Chapter 18Covalent BondsCovalent bonds occur between atoms of similar electronegativity (closeto each other in the periodic table)Atoms achieve octets bysharingof valence electronsMolecules result from this covalent bondingValence electrons can be indicated by dots (electron-dot formula orLewis structures) but this is time-consumingThe usual way to indicate the two electrons in a bond is to use a line(one line = two electrons)
Chapter 1

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