Philosophy Test 3 Study Guide

Philosophy Test 3 Study Guide - Philosophy Study Guide Test...

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Philosophy Study Guide Test 3 Basics Argument: List of sentences, conclusion follows from the premises Valid Argument: Conclusion does follow from the premises. If the premises were true, the conclusion would also have to be true *Not all valid arguments have true premises *Some invalid arguments have true conclusions I like the color white My dog is fluffy TF, it is sunny outside Sound Argument: Argument must be valid and the premises must be true *Always have true conclusions When it rains, the ground gets wet It rained TF, the ground is wet Moral Skepticism No such thing as objective moral truth o Truth does not exist Morality is subjective Morality is a matter of opinion Values exist only in our minds “Cultural Differences Argument”: not valid Just because two societies have conflicting opinions about something does not mean that there is no truth Cannot validly move from premises about what people believe to a conclusions about what is so, because people may be wrong The Provability Argument Tendency to focus on moral issues which cannot be proven It is easy to confuse two matters o Proving an opinions to be correct o Persuading someone to accept your proof Proving vs. persuading using reason How Not to Argue: Circular Argument: assuming the conclusion in the premises Straw Person Argument: Setting up your opponent to have a weak argument to knock it down. Ad Hominem Argument: Attacking a valid source because you don’t agree with him personally Appeal to authority: giving too much credit to an authority figure
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Racisms 1. Racialism Races are distinguished by heritable characteristics (genetics) False There have been a mixing of racial backgrounds throughout history (no pure races) DNA: no correlation between genetic traits and race (physical traits) Racialism=presupposition of racism 2. Extrinsic Racism Better based on traits Making moral distinctions (honesty, intelligence, etc.) between different races because the “racial essence” entails morally relevant qualities 3. Intrinsic Racism Better “just because” People who differentiate morally between members of different races because they believe that each race has a different moral status 4. Disposition “personality” Sugar cube example When placed in a specific circumstance, it will react in a certain way To really be a racist, one must have a certain cognitive incapacity o Stubbornness o Steadfast even when given sufficient evidence o Unable to use reason to come to senses People who have something to lose (ie- people who are at the top of the “social food chain”) are less likely to admit racism is illogical 5. Conclusions No good reason to be an extrinsic racist Intrinsic racists Immanuel Kant (philosopher) o Only relevant thing is a person’s will Whether or not a person is innately good o two prisoners, two sandwiches example Racisms, Kwame Anthony Appiah
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PHI 153 taught by Professor Hiller during the Spring '08 term at Wake Forest.

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Philosophy Test 3 Study Guide - Philosophy Study Guide Test...

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