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09.27 - Zhang - Thermodynamics

09.27 - Zhang - Thermodynamics - 1 THERMODYNAMICS REACTIONS...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 THERMODYNAMICS, REACTIONS, AND ENZYMES Dr. Zhongtao Zhang BSB Room 107 594-4728 [email protected] Readings Voet: Chapters 3, 12, 13, 14 Berg: Chapters 8, 9, 10. Lehninger: Chapter 6. key points • All life processes are the results of regulated chemical processes. • All chemical reactions are governed by laws of thermodynamics. • The direction of the reaction is determined by the free energy change Physical constants and Units 2 Conversion of one form of energy to another. In biological system, the conversion of chemical energy to: Synthesis of Complex Molecules (Protein, DNA, etc.) Concentration gradients (Ca2+, H+) Motion and Heat Light (fireflies) All life processes conform to the laws of thermodynamics. THERMODYNAMICS studies the relationship among various Forms of energy and how energy affects matter on the macroscopic scale. First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved ! U = U final- U initial = q- w ! ! H Change in energy (U) equals heat absorbed by the system (q) plus the work done by the system (w). In biology, ! H and ! U are usually equivalent, and can be estimated by measuring heat transferred at constant pressure when no work is preformed. H=U+PV Second law of Thermodynamics The universe tends towards maximum disorder Entropy S= k B lnW Entropy relates the number of equivalent ways of arranging a system in a particular state (W). ( a quantitative expression for the Randomness or disorder of a system) The laws of random chance cause any system of reasonable size to spontaneously adopt its most probable arrangement. 2 Conversion of one form of energy to another. In biological system, the conversion of chemical energy to: Synthesis of Complex Molecules (Protein, DNA, etc.) Concentration gradients (Ca2+, H+) Motion and Heat Light (fireflies) All life processes conform to the laws of thermodynamics. THERMODYNAMICS studies the relationship among various Forms of energy and how energy affects matter on the macroscopic scale. First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved ! U = U final- U initial = q- w ! ! H Change in energy (U) equals heat absorbed by the system (q) plus the work done by the system (w). In biology, ! H and ! U are usually equivalent, and can be estimated by measuring heat transferred at constant pressure when no work is preformed. H=U+PV Second law of Thermodynamics The universe tends towards maximum disorder Entropy S= k B lnW Entropy relates the number of equivalent ways of arranging a system in a particular state (W). ( a quantitative expression for the Randomness or disorder of a system) The laws of random chance cause any system of reasonable size to spontaneously adopt its most probable arrangement. 3 Entropy Enthalpy Enthalpy (H) is the heat content of the system. In chemical reactions, it reflects the number and kinds of bonds in the reactants and products....
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09.27 - Zhang - Thermodynamics - 1 THERMODYNAMICS REACTIONS...

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