history_200_study_sheet[1].doc__revised_ - History 200...

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History 200 Study Sheet First Examination: North America 1500 to 1800 Terms: Short answer items with several terms to compare and contrast— worth 40% Northwest passage, Magellan, Venice, Ottoman Empire, reconquista, military adventurers, men of Extremadura, men of the West Country, encomienda, Pueblo Indians, woodlands Indians, hunter gatherers, Virgin Soil Epidemics, silver galleons, privateers. Northwest passage- a sea route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Arctic Archipelago of Canada . The various islands of the archipelago are separated from one another and the Canadian mainland by a series of Arctic waterways collectively known as the Northwest Passages or Northwestern Passages. Between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century , Europeans attempted to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America . The English called the hypothetical route the Northwest Passage , while the Spanish called it the Strait of Anián . The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. Magellan- Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese maritime explorer whose circumnavigation of the globe proved that there was no way to get to the East through the West. Magellan circumnavigated the globe between 1519-1522 and although he himself did not survive, he is often referred to as the 1 st person to circumnavigate the world. Venice- the center of Mediterranean commerce in the 15 th century; along with Genoa, was well known and respected in the eastern Mediterranean; these two cities had acquired great wealth in connecting the Ottoman Empire with Western Europe. Venetians focused on the eastern Mediterranean and the caravan routes available to them, while it was the Genoese who sought new opportunities and alternative routes. (pg. Ottoman Empire-vast empire that came to surround much of the Mediterranean, reaching into Europe, Africa, and Asia. The foundations for this vast empire began when Sultan Mehemet II conquered Constantinople as an Islamic successor to Rome. Worldwide trade and the cultural exchanges that accompanied it were facilitated by the Muslim dynasties, reaching a high point with the reign of the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Through the participation of in this trade, the Europeans came to recognize their much dependence on the Muslim traders and the wealth that direct trade with Asia held in store. (pg. 23, Bender). The expansion of the Ottoman empire in North Africa eliminated Mediterranean targets for military activity, thus another reason why the conquistadors traveled to the Americas for colonization. Reconquista- The Reconquista was the process by which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania defeated and expelled the southern Muslim forces and Moorish states
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of the Iberian Peninsula , ending more than 8 centuries of Moorish rule in Spain. The Reconquista is commonly accepted to have started in 722, with the Battle of Covadonga
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course HIST 200gm taught by Professor Shammas during the Fall '05 term at USC.

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history_200_study_sheet[1].doc__revised_ - History 200...

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