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History 200 Study SheetFirst Examination: North America 1500 to 1800Terms:Short answer items with several terms to compare and contrast— worth 40%Northwest passage, Magellan, Venice, Ottoman Empire,reconquista, military adventurers, men of Extremadura, menof the West Country, encomienda, Pueblo Indians, woodlandsIndians, hunter gatherers, Virgin Soil Epidemics, silvergalleons, privateers.Northwest passage- a sea route connecting theAtlanticandPacific Oceansthrough theArctic ArchipelagoofCanada. The variousislandsof the archipelago are separated fromone another and the Canadian mainland by a series ofArcticwaterwayscollectivelyknown as the Northwest Passages or Northwestern Passages. Between the end of the15thcenturyand the20th century,Europeansattempted to discover a commercial sea routenorth and west aroundNorth America. The English called the hypothetical route theNorthwest Passage, while the Spanish called it theStrait of Anián. The desire to establishsuch a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of NorthAmerica.Magellan- Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese maritime explorer whosecircumnavigation of the globe proved that there was no way to get to the East through theWest. Magellan circumnavigated the globe between 1519-1522 and although he himselfdid not survive, he is often referred to as the 1stperson to circumnavigate the world.Venice- the center of Mediterranean commerce in the 15thcentury; along with Genoa,was well known and respected in the eastern Mediterranean; these two cities had acquiredgreat wealth in connecting the Ottoman Empire with Western Europe. Venetians focusedon the eastern Mediterranean and the caravan routes available to them, while it was theGenoese who sought new opportunities and alternative routes. (pg.Ottoman Empire-vast empire that came to surround much of the Mediterranean, reachinginto Europe, Africa, and Asia. The foundations for this vast empire began when SultanMehemet II conquered Constantinople as an Islamic successor to Rome. Worldwide tradeand the cultural exchanges that accompanied it were facilitated by the Muslim dynasties,reaching a high point with the reign of the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.Through the participation of in this trade, the Europeans came to recognize their muchdependence on the Muslim traders and the wealth that direct trade with Asia held in store.(pg. 23, Bender). The expansion of the Ottoman empire in North Africa eliminatedMediterranean targets for military activity, thus another reason why the conquistadorstraveled to the Americas for colonization.Reconquista- TheReconquistawas the process by which the Christian Kingdoms ofnorthern Hispania defeated and expelled the southernMuslimforces and Moorish states
of theIberian Peninsula, ending more than 8 centuries of Moorish rule in Spain. TheReconquista is commonly accepted to have started in 722, with theBattle of Covadonga,and finished in 1492, with the conquest ofGranada.