Reactor DesignCatalysis•Catalysis is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst. •A catalyst is not consumed by the reaction itself•A catalyst may participate in multiple chemical transformations•Catalysts that speed the reaction are called positive catalysts and that slow a reaction is called negative catalysts•Though the catalysts speed up a reaction, it never determines the equilibrium or endpoint of a reaction. This is governed by thermodynamics alone•According to transition theory, the catalysts reduces the potential energy barrier over which the reactants must pass to form products•Examples:•Ammonia synthesis –Promoted iron•SO2oxidation –Venadium Pentaoxide•Cracking –Sylica, alumina•Dehydrogenation –Platinum, Molybdenum
Reactor DesignAction of catalysts: the reactant molecules are changed, energized oraffected to form intermediates in the regions close to the catalystsurfaceThe uncatalyzed reaction has to overcome a substantial energybarrier, whereas the barriers in the catalytic route are much lower.Catalysis
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