tema_4_theories of learning - Theories of learning Unit 4...

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Theories of learning Unit 4 Applied Linguistics Fernando Rubio University of Huelva, Spain (Sources are in slide 40)
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Broad Goals 1. Operationally define terms relevant to theories of learning. 2. Examine learning theories that are currently important.
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Definitions: Learning is: 1. “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result of the learner’s interaction with the environment” (Driscoll, 1994, pp. 8-9). 2. “the relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience” (Mayer, 1982, p. 1040). 3. “an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience” (Shuell, 1986, p. 412).
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Learning Theory Q: How do people learn? A: Nobody really knows. But there are 6 main theories: Behaviorism Cognitivism Social Learning Theory Social Constructivism Multiple Intelligences Brain-Based Learning
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Behaviorism Confined to observable and measurable behavior Classical Conditioning - Pavlov Operant Conditioning - Skinner
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Behaviorism Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S R A stimulus is presented in order to get a response:
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Behaviorism Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S US UR CS US CR
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Behaviorism Operant Conditioning - Skinner The response is made first, then reinforcement follows.
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Behaviorism Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors Focuses solely on observable behaviors A biological basis for learning Learning is context-independent Classical & Operant Conditioning Reflexes (Pavlov’s Dogs) Feedback/Reinforcement (Skinner’s Pigeon Box)
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Behaviorism in the Classroom Rewards and punishments Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher Lecture-based, highly structured
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Critiques of Behaviorism Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed Advocates for passive student learning in a teacher-centric environment One size fits all Knowledge itself is given and absolute Programmed instruction & teacher-proofing
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Learning Theory Behaviorism Cognitive Learning Theory Social Learning Theory
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Cognitivism Grew in response to Behaviorism
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