Italy Terms - CHAPTER 21 Statuto albertino: The 1848...

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CHAPTER 21 Statuto albertino : The 1848 constitution put forth by King Charles Albert of Piedomont that allowed extensive powers to remain with the king. It allowed the king to appoint Mussolini to PM and use emergency decrees to create his dictatorship. The statuto albertino was still in effect during fascism which meant that the military owed allegiance to the king and not to Mussolini. This is significant, because it allowed the king to overthrow Mussolini. (pg. 407) Risorgimento : The name for the movement/process of the nationalists for Italian unification. It began in the early 19 th century and the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed by Parliament in March 1861 with Victor Emmanuel II as the first monarch. The movement ended approximately in 1870 with the Franco-Prussian War. The movement attracted middle and upper-class moderate nationalists with enlightened liberalism, but this left out the peasantry/lower-class which meant that basic social and political problems were ignored. (pg. 407) Transformismo : The practice of constructing a coalition among members of Parliament without considering political affiliation or party. The main goal was to build and establish a coalition in order for the government to “get things done”, so concessions/deals are made, the opposition may become part of the government, and bribery was also used at times. Significant, because the meaning and differences that distinguished parties, groups, and ideologies disappeared and people did not know exactly what the parties, groups etc. stood for. Also, this leads to backroom deals/corruption. (pg. 409) il Duce : (leader) The name given for Mussolini who was at the top of the Fascist pyramid. Il Deuce created a top-heavy, centralized structure of power which was intended to make citizens over in a new image. They were to be tough and uncorrupted by materialistic softness represented by liberal democracy. Il Deuce was the embodiment of Fascism even before it existed in Germany. (pg. 410) Lateran Pacts: A series of agreements between the church and state in 1929 which gave the Catholic Church a formal privileged position in Italy. It created a relationship between Pope Pius XI and Mussolini. The most important of the agreements was the Concordat…(pg. 411) Concordat : the most important agreement of the Lateran Pacts. It named Roman Catholicism the official religion of the state which gave the church special privileges such as, control over the mandatory weekly hour of religious teaching in Italian public schools. The church gave the Fascist state recognition and praise from thousands of pulpits every Sunday. By having the support of the church/Vatican, the Fascist state could gain the support of the people for some of its more questionable policies. (pg. 411) Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI): IRI was created in 1953 in response to the Great Depression. It was a holding company for stocks that the state bought while
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companies started to go bankrupt. They bailed out many failing firms which resulted in
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSCI 000 taught by Professor Hongkong during the Spring '07 term at Mary Washington.

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Italy Terms - CHAPTER 21 Statuto albertino: The 1848...

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