Chapter 21 - Italy Political History(Chap 21 1...

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Italy- Political History (Chap 21) 1. Risorgimento (‘resurgence’) - the nationalist movement that sought to unite the Italian Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont and Liguria, under the Savoy monarchy) and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, the Papal States; and Austrian controlled Lombardy and Venetia. Because supporters of Risorgimento tended to come from the upper and middle classes, they did not to address the basic social and political problems of Italian peasants. The modern Italian state consisted of these political entities prior to 1859, when Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy began maneuvering toward their unification. Relative to France and Britain, Italy was centralized into one state at a much later time. 2. Camillo Cavour - the Prime Minister of King Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy; Cavour played a large role in expanding the popularity of the idea of unified Italy among middle and upper classes, attracting support from both liberal and nationalist groups. Cavour was instrumental in securing a Sardinian/ French alliance that would later allow his kingdom to annex parts of northern Italy from the Austrian Hapsburgs and also some of the Papal States. Giuseppe Garibaldi - Italian patriot and nationalist who left Piedmont for Sicily (1860- 61) with 1,000 volunteers ( the Red Shirts ) under the slogan Roma o Morte (Rome or Death). After recruiting supporters in Sicily, Garibaldi moved his volunteers to the Italian mainland at Naples and attempted to march into Rome, but he was arrested and his bid to lessen the power of the Papacy failed (he did manage to topple the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, however). It is unclear how much support (if any) he received from Victor Emmanuel II in his expedition (also called the Expedition of Thousand ); the King wanted to reduce the power of the Roman Catholic Church, but due to Rome’s importance to Catholics around the world, he moved cautiously. Giuseppe Mazzini- nationalist writer and revolutionary who, along with Garibaldi, led pro- unification forces during an unsuccessful revolt in 1848 (also know as ‘the First War of Italian Independence). Mazzini was an inspirational figure and a figurehead of the Risorgimento before the King Victor Emmanuel II effectively replaced him as its leader. The Phases of Italian Unification:
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Chapter 21 - Italy Political History(Chap 21 1...

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