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Study Guide - Key Terms 1-3

Study Guide - Key Terms 1-3 - Key Terms Institution An...

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Key - Terms Institution – An ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society. Social Conflict – Disagreements among people in a society over what the society’s priorities should be with respect to the use of scarce resources. Politics – The process of resolving conflicts over how society should use its scarce resources and who should receive various benefits, such as public health care and public higher education. Government – The individuals and institutions that make society’s rules that also possess the power and authority to enforce those rules. Power – The ability to influence the behavior of others, usually thought the use of force, persuasion, or rewards. Authority – the ability to exercise power, such as the power to make and enforce laws, legitimately. Public Services – Essential services that individuals cannot provide for themselves, such as building and maintaining public roads, providing welfare programs, operating public schools, and preserving national parks. Different Systems of Government Autocracy – A form of government in which the power and authority of the government are in the hands of a single person. Monarchy – A form of autocracy in which a king, queen, emperor, empress, tsar, or tsarina is the highest authority in the government; monarchs usually obtain their power thought inheritance. Divine Right Theory – A Theory that the right to rule by a king or queen was derived directly from God rather than from the consent of the people. Dictatorship – A form of government in which absolute power is exercised by a single person who has usually obtained his or her power buy the use of force. Democracy – A system of government in which the people have ultimate political authority. Direct Democracy – A system of government in which political decision s are made by the people themselves rather than by elected representatives. Found in ancient Greece. Representative democracy – A form of democracy in which the will of the majority is expressed through smaller groups of individuals elected by the people to act as their representatives. Republic – Essentially, a term referring tot a representative democracy in which there is no king or queen and the people are sovereign. The people elect smaller groups of individuals to act as people representatives. Limited Government – A form of the government based on the principle that the powers of government should be clearly limited either through a written document or through wide public understanding; characterized by institutional check to ensure that government serves public rather than private interests. Parliament – The name of the national legislative body in courtiers governed by a parliamentary system – as in Britain and Canada.
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