Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Taylor Chestnut GOL 105 Earth Science...

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Taylor Chestnut GOL 105 2/7/08 Earth Science – Exam 1 Earth science is the study of all facets of our planet, its environment, and the processes that take place within it. (Solid Earth, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Biosphere) THE BIG BANG Occurred 12-14 Billion years ago Created cloud of hot gas and dust that held all particles of life. Galaxies form by gravitational pull, these spread out as universe expands and within these galaxies clumps create stars. o Sun is created through gravity o Nuclear fusion creates a wind that drives excess dust out of the solar system, it also gives the star energy o The dust is made from atoms, elements, and compounds All original matter was made from hydrogen and a little bit of helium with some other basic elements. Our solar system is young, relatively. It is made from the dust of exploded stars. Our sun only burns hydrogen to make helium; it is not bigger to do more. ELEMENTS Proton – mass of 1, + charge, in the nucleus Neutron – mass of 1, no charge, in the nucleus Electron – no mass, - charge Atomic Mass = # of protons + # of neutrons Chemical behavior is determined by atomic mass, size, and arrangement of electrons. Periodic table is organized so that more complex/heavier items are to the right and down Heavier elements are created by fusion reactions in the center of stars, supernovas. All elements heavier then iron. Elements are more stable when they are bonded together in compounds. This can be Ionic, Covalent or both. o Ionic – One element gives up and electron and the other takes it. One is + charge and one becomes – o Covalent – Atoms share electrons so that they both become stable, very strong. MINERALS Properties of Minerals – o Naturally occurring
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o Inorganic solid o Specific chemical composition o Definite crystal structure Identification – o Crystal Form/Habit – the shape of the mineral when it grows unconstrained o Luster – the way that light reflects off the surface (glass, pearly, earthy) o Color – (not reliable) o Streak – the color of the mineral when it is powdered, scratch on porcelain o Hardness – the ability of a mineral to resist scratching, Mohs hardness scale o Cleavage – tendency of mineral to break along plane of weakness, basal only one weakness plane o Fracture – The irregular way a mineral breaks, conchoidal fracture scalloped, shell like, the way glass breaks o Others – taste, feel, bendability, reaction with acid, refraction Mineral Groups – if they are in the same group they share many of the same properties.
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