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# Lecture 1 - Albedo-Percentage of sunlight that reflects off...

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09/27 Intro The sun makes up a massive part of the solar system, 99.85% - Phase Diagrams o Shows the boundaries between the phases of solid, liquid, and gas of a substance o Phase depends on temperature and pressure Density, Albedo, and Moment of Inertia - How do you use them - How do you use them to determine composition of a planetary body Density: - Property of mass that is independent of the amount of material - Density = Mass/Volume - g/cm^3 - Most solid object made of combination of one or more of rock, ice, or iron o In the inner solar system, rock and iron are the important building materials - These substances melt together, with rocks floating to top Density of: Water = 1 gm/cm^3 Rocks = 3 gm/cm^3 Iron = 8 gm/cm^3 (7.9g/cm^3) - Average densities used to determine composition

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o Be careful with gassy planets o Use uncompressed density compressed > uncompressed o 3.5 g/cm^3 = Mostly rock and little iron o 5.5 g/cm^3 = About the same amount of rock and iron o 7.0 g/cm^3 = Mostly iron and a little rock
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Unformatted text preview: Albedo:-Percentage of sunlight that reflects off a surface-Tells about surface of worlds-Doesn’t say anything about interior of worlds-Can tell the properties of o Clouds, Snow, Rocks, and Landforms Moment of Inertia [K]:-Tells about how mass is distributed in interior of worlds o More mass concentrated in core = Lower moment of inertia o Usually 0.3 < X < 0.4 o Undifferentiated worlds, K = 0.4 Almost never greater than 0.4 (mass concentrated on outside) Astronomical Unit (AU):-Relative distance to sun-Earth and Sun = 1 AU Kepler’s Laws: 1) Planets follow elliptical orbits Earth goes around in a near perfect circle (a circle is a special type of ellipse) 2) A planet goes different speed at different points in its orbit Fastest when closest to star (perigee) Slowest when furthest away (apogee) 3) Planets closest to Sun move more quickly around the Sun Mercury moves faster than Earth...
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