Chapter_17_Summary_Outline - Chapter 17: Therapy Chapter...

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Chapter 17: Therapy Chapter Overview/Summary People seek treatment for a variety of reasons including: personal distress, physician referral, an effort to improve marriages, and an effort to avoid legal trouble. Unfortunately, many patients co me to therapy reluctantly and men are more likely than women to be reluctant. Numerous individ uals provide therapeutic services in our country including psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, an d psychiatric social workers. Building a strong alliance between the therapist and client is critical to successful treatment. Treatment approaches are evaluated using one of five sources of data: therapist reports, client self-reports, reports of family and friends, pre- and post-tests, and observations of overt behavior. Although each source of data has flaws, the collection of such data have allowed researcher to ev aluate the efficacy of various forms of treatment. Evaluation of the success of psychotherapy in p roducing desired changes in clients is difficult. Research in psychotherapy, however, has shown t hat most treatment approaches are more effective than no treatment at all. Treatment may be broadly grouped into two categories: psychological treatment (psychotherapy) and biologically based treatments (medications, ECT, and neurosurgery). The goals of psychotherapy include changing maladaptive behavior, minimizing or eliminating stressful envir onmental conditions, reducing negative affect, improving interpersonal competencies, resolving personal conflicts, modifying a person’s inaccurate assumptions about himself or herself, and fos tering a more positive self-image. Although these goals are by no means easy to achieve, psychol ogical treatment methods have been shown to be generally effective in promoting adaptive psych ological functioning in many troubled people. Medications are also important in the treatment of many disorders. It is now common clinical practice for medication and psychological treatments to be combined. Some of the earlier antidep ressant medications (e.g., tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors) have now been replaced by SSRIs and SNRIs. In general, antidepressants work through their influence on the serotonin a nd norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems. The most commonly used antipsychotic medication s are the atypical neuroleptics. These improve both positive and negative symptoms and have fe wer extrapyramidal symptoms (unwanted movement side effects) than do conventional antipsych otics. Although not frequently used, ECT is a safe and effective treatment for depression and oth er disorders. It causes some short-term cognitive side effects, especially when administered bilate rally. Anxiolytic medications work via their effect on the GABA system to decrease anxiety. The y are widely prescribed. Lithium is an important medication in the treatment of mania. However, some of the newer mood-stabilizing drugs (that also treat epilepsy) are now more frequently used . Many approaches to psychological treatment have been developed to treat individuals with
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course CLP 3144 taught by Professor Online during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter_17_Summary_Outline - Chapter 17: Therapy Chapter...

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