geology test 1 - Unit 1 january 17 The universe is about...

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Unit 1january 17The universe is about (~) 15 billion years (B.Y.) old.Solar system is about 4.5 billion years oldoConsists of the sun and 9 planets circling it (figure 9.3)2 groups of planets:oTerrestrial: small, rocky, denseMercury, Venus, Earth, MarsoJovian: large, gassy, lightJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, NeptuneOur solar system formed from relatively cold material.Formed from Nebula ofgas and dust that undergoes accretion.Gravitational attraction- the larger a bodythe more dust and gas it pulls in—accretion (figure 1.2).Most of the materialgoes to form the sun, and the left over’s form planets, comets, and meteorites.The earth warms up very rapidly due to:oAccretion- collisional heatingoCompression- inner layers get heatedoDecay of radioactive materials inside earth—continues todayThe earth becomes (partially) molten.This is caused (in part) by collision withmars’ sized body; this created the moon (figure 9.4).Then started to cool down.*rocks are very poor conductors of heat*once “crust” forms on the earth,inside still remains very hot—even today.Earth may have been uniform in composition (inside and outside) at first, butbecause of heating, it became differentiated- layered (figure 1.5)Once the temperature (T) inside is high enough, the earth begins to melt, “falls” tothe center, and releases energy and causes more heating.Runaway process:lotsof iron melt and falls to the center (figure 9.5)this is called The IronCatastrophe.This huge heating event causes “boiling off” of volatiles from the inside.Water,other gasses belchedto the outside“The Big Burp”forms the early ocean andatmosphere (figure 9.6)oBoth are very different from what we have today.We look at layering in 2different ways.Distances measured from surfaces of the earth…?Earth is based on composition (figure 1.5)oCrust: solid rock (0-~40 km depth)oMantle: (different type of) solid rock (~40-2900 km depth)oOuter core: liquid iron (2900-5100 km depth)Inner core: solid iron (5100-6400km depth)-Based on Mechanical StrengthJanuary 19, 2007Top layer: (0-100 km depth) lithosphere. Cool, strong, rocky(rigid), rocks muchbelow melting point. Contains crust and part of the upper mantleNext layer: (100-300 km depth) asthenosphere. Hot, weak (ductile bends). Rocksclose to their melting point. Consistency of that like tar or silly putty.Mesosphere: (300-2900 km depth) hot, strong, rigid, rocks under very highpressure. Not near melting
-Chemical Composition of the EarthTop layer (crust)most studied and most accessible fig 1.7Two elements (the big 2) make up 75% of totalIn order: oxygen-O and silicon-SThese 2 with 6 others (the big 8) make up 99% of the crust. These are:Aluminum-Al, Iron-Fe, Magnesium-Mg, Calcium-Ca, Potassium-K, Sodium-NaContrast this with the composition of the whole earth. Most abundant in order:iron, oxygen,silicon, magnesium. Most of the Fe in the core. Most of Mg in themantle.

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